Guinness Old Gold Lustre Antique Irish Horse Solid Brass Beer Vintage Ireland UK • EUR 234,81 (2024)

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Venditore: lasvegasormonaco ✉️ (3.637) 99.6%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Manchester, Take a look at my other items, GB, Spedizione verso: WORLDWIDE, Numero oggetto: 266845992930 Guinness Old Gold Lustre Antique Irish Horse Solid Brass Beer Vintage Ireland UK. 6 Horse Brasses on Leather Martingale Belt Strap Set of 6 Horse Brass with an Guinness Irish Theme 1) Prancing Horse 2) Guinness Harp 3) Horse with Lucky Horse Shoe 4) Three Guiness Goblets 5) Swan 6) Guinness Tankard The Leather Martingale Strap looks old with some wear and tear it can be hung on the wall This was originally hung on the wall in a pub Dimensions 42 cm x 6cm A wonderful item for anyone who likes Guinness It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. This once belonged to my Grand Mother and she kept in a display cabinet for many years, but when she died it was placed in a box for storage. I Decided to have a clear out and I hope it will find a good home In Very good condition for its age over 100 years old Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the item justice which looks a lot better in real life Like all my Auctions Bidding starts a a penny with no reserve... if your the only bidder you win it for 1p...Grab a Bargain! Click Here to Check out my Other Antique Items & Coins Bid with Confidence - Check My 100% Positive Feedback from over 3,000 Satisfied Customers I have over 10 years of Ebay Selling Experience - So Why Not Treat Yourself? I have got married recently and need to raise funds to meet the costs also we are planning to move into a house together I always combined postage on multiple items Instant Feedback Automatically Left Immediately after Receiving Payment All Items Sent out within 24 hours of Receiving Payment. 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City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Horse brass 5th-century BC Celtic phalera from a chariot burial in Gaul Display of English brasses A horse brass is a brass plaque used for the decoration of horse harness gear, especially for shire and parade horses. They became especially popular in England from the mid-19th century until their general decline alongside the use of the draft horse, and remain collectors items today. Phalera is the archaeological term for equivalent disks, which were popular in Iron Age Europe, including Ancient Rome. History A modern souvenir horse brass featuring Gloucester Cathedral In ancient Rome, horse harnesses were sometimes embellished with horse brasses known as phalerae, normally in bronze, cut or cast in the shape of a boss, disk, or crescent, most often used in pairs on a harness.[1] In medieval England, decorative horse brasses were in use before the 12th century, serving as talismans and status symbols, but extensive, original research by members of the National Horse Brass Society has shown that there is no connection whatsoever between these bronze amulets to the working-class harness decorations used in the mid-19th century which developed as part of a general flowering of the decorative arts following the Great Exhibition. There are a great deal of die-hard, unfounded myths surrounding these decorations such as their usage as amulets to ward off the "evil eye". The most popular size is 3 × 3+1⁄2 inches of flat brass with a hanger by which the brass is threaded onto a horse harness strap, known as a Martingale. In England many of these items of harness found their way into country public houses as the era of the heavy horse declined, and are still associated today as a pub decoration. By the late 19th century heavy horses were decorated with brasses of all kinds and sizes. During this era working horse parades were popular throughout the British Isles and prize or merit awards were given, some by the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA). Horse brasses were often highly prized by the "carters", who decorated their horse with them. Other horse brass subjects include advertising, royalty commemoration, and in later years, souvenir brasses for places and events, many of which are still being made and used today. Collection Collecting horse brasses for their own sake other than as decorations for harness seems to have commenced around 1880, when women bought the newly issued, pierced-design, die-struck brasses which were used for pin-cushions. A little later these were often used as fingerplates on doors which can be corroborated by accounts in the trade magazine, Saddler and Harness by the veteran saddler William Albery or Horsham in Sussex. From 1890 onward, collecting the various types of brass, i.e. face-pieces, swingers, and hame-plates, etc., became a highly popular pastime amongst the upper and middle classes. Indeed, the collecting of these humble brasses became especially popular amongst academics with many famous, early collections being formed by public schoolmasters and other prominent professionals, such as A.H. Tod,[2] a Master at Charterhouse School and Dr Kirk of Pickering in Yorkshire, whose collection is still housed at the York Castle Museum in York. The writing about such items also commenced c. 1890s and was dominated by much Victorian romanticism surrounding the supposed, esoteric origin and ancient, unbroken lineage of these decorations. Such myths include their origin as talismanic symbols being brought back to England by homecoming knights returning from the Crusades, or in later years, by migrating Romani, though, once again, absolutely no evidence has ever been offered in support of these theories. Cast brasses Whatever the views of individual collectors as to when or where working-horse harness decoration first began in the British Isles, most collectors agree that cast brasses were the first to appear on the scene. Opinion is also still divided as to how, even these, originated, but once again, most collectors nowadays, are in agreement that the earliest decorations were simple, cast studs in a variety of shapes and sizes. The earliest types were probably even made locally by smiths or other skilled artisans but by the second half of the 19th century the production of such things had evolved from a local, decorative cult into a national fashion with the bulk of their production centred in and around the West Midlands.[3] Stamped brasses Stamped brasses on heavy horse harness appeared on the scene around 1880, with a small number occurring perhaps a decade or so earlier, and it is highly likely that the process developed from one that was already established in the manufacture of carriage harness trappings and military insignia. However, production of these appears to have peaked shortly before the First World War, and since the 1920s, a few types have been produced but their quality is rather poor being made from thinner gauge brass sheet. Due to serious considerations of the sheer weight of cast harness decorations carried by working horses (first raised by the early animal welfare movements in the late 19th century) it is thought that the first stamped brasses were made as a lighter (and cheaper), alternative to cast brasses being later exported throughout the British Empire. Unlike their cast cousins, stamped brasses were not made in moulds, but pressed out of rolled sheet brass approximately 1/16 in thickness although other gauges of sheet than earlier examples. Due to the ease of their manufacture, many thousands of these stamped types were produced, but there are some that are very rare. The production of both cast and stamped brasses has continued since the demise of the British working horse but their manufacture is mainly centred on the souvenir trade, and other specialist manufacturers who provide for the heavy horse world who still breed and show the various breeds. The National Horse Brass Society of England has members all over the world and provides publications for members and swap meets. References "Phalera", James Yates, M.A., F.R.S., on p. 894 of William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D.: A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, John Murray, London, 1875. (At pp. 764–765 of the 1878 edition.) Horse Brass Collections No. 1 (1944) Henry Devonshire, Birmingham National Horse Brass Society, UK External links National Horse Brass Society Museum of English Rural Life Horse Brass collection vte Horse tack and other equine equipment Saddles, component parts and accessories Saddles Western saddleEnglish saddleAustralian Stock SaddleSidesaddlePack saddle Component parts and accessories Girth (tack)Breastplate (tack)StirrupTapaderoSaddle blanketSaddlebagPannier Bits, bridles and hackamores Headstalls BridleHackamoreDouble bridleBitless bridle Bits and bit parts Curb bitSnaffle bitGag bitKimblewick bitPelham bitSpade bit (horse)Ring bitBit mouthpieceBit ringBit shank Component parts and accessories Noseband or cavessonBosalMechanical hackamoreReinsRomalMecate (rein)Curb chainFiador (tack)Bit converterBit guardLip strapTongue-tie (tack) Horse harness and carriages Harness and parts Horse harnessHorse collar (includes hames)Breastplate (tack)Breeching (tack)CrupperTrace (tack)TerretSurcingle Harness bridle components Blinders or blinkersShadow rollBearing rein or overcheck Horse-drawn vehicles CarriageSulkywagonSledCartHorse and buggyNaturmobil Tack accessories and training tools Martingale (tack)WhipCrop (implement)QuirtSpurSurcingleBitting rigLongeing cavessonSide reinsChambonDraw reins and running reinsGogue Other equipment Stable equipment HalterLead (tack)Grooming toolsHorse blanketFly mask Leg protection Leg wrapsPolo wrapsShipping bandageStable bandageBell bootsSplint bootsSkid boots Restraints Hobble (device)Picket lineTwitch (device)Cattle crush Historic or ceremonial equipment McClellan saddleBardingKura (saddle)Abumi (stirrup)FrenteraShabrackCaparisonHorse brassHipposandal Farriery (horseshoeing) HorseshoeHoof bootCaulkins Occupations GroomHostlerStrapper Transportation Horse trailer Glossary of equestrian termsCategory:Horse tack and equipment vte Amulets and talismans Amulets AgimatAmulet MS 5236Axe of PerunAzusa YumiBonshōBrigid's crossBroom (Besom)BullaBullroarerCarnyxCeltic crossCimarutaCornicelloCrepundiaCorn dollyCorn husk dollCross necklaceDacian DracoDjucuDōtakuDreamcatcherDzi beadElf-arrowFascinusFuluGod's eyeGood luck charmGorgoneionGris-grisHanging craftHama yaHama yumiHamsaHercules' ClubHorse brassHorseshoeHoko dollI'noGo tiedJackal's hornJujuKabura-yaKagome crestKagura suzuKanai AnzenKoan kroachLapis alectoriusMandrakeMedicine bagMjölnirMojoMugwortNazarOfudaOmamoriPalad khikPictish painted pebblesPoppetRabbit's footRed stringRinSachetSampySuzuTa'wizTakrutThokchaThunderstoneTintinnabulumTouch pieceTriskelionTroll crossVoodoo dollWitch ballWitch bottle Talismans LamenNavaratnaSeal of SolomonSwastikaUncial 0152 Related articles Apotropaic magicCurse tabletEvil eyeFeng shuiFolk religionMagic and religionNumerologyNumismatic charmSuperstitionsTorma Authority control: National libraries Edit this at Wikidata IsraelUnited States Categories: Horse harnessHorse ornamentationLuckNumismaticsAmuletsBrassMetallic objects Guinness Type Dry stout (beer) Manufacturer Diageo Country of origin Ireland Introduced 1759; 263 years ago Alcohol by volume 4.2% Colour Black (sometimes described as very dark ruby-red)[1] Flavour Dry Website Guinness (/ˈɡɪnəs/) is an Irish dry stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, in 1759. It is one of the most successful alcohol brands worldwide, brewed in almost 50 countries, and available in over 120.[2][3] Sales in 2011 amounted to 850,000,000 liters (190,000,000 imp gal; 220,000,000 U.S. gal).[2] In spite of declining consumption since 2001,[4] it is the best-selling alcoholic drink in Ireland[5] where Guinness & Co. Brewery makes almost €2 billion worth of beer annually. The Guinness Storehouse is a tourist attraction at St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland. Since opening in 2000, it has received over 20 million visitors. Guinness's flavour derives from malted barley and roasted unmalted barley, a relatively modern development, not becoming part of the grist until the mid-20th century. For many years, a portion of aged brew was blended with freshly brewed beer to give a sharp lactic acid flavour. Although Guinness's palate still features a characteristic "tang", the company has refused to confirm whether this type of blending still occurs. The draught beer's thick, creamy head comes from mixing the beer with nitrogen and carbon dioxide.[6] The company moved its headquarters to London at the beginning of the Anglo-Irish Trade War in 1932. In 1997, Guinness plc merged with Grand Metropolitan to form the multinational alcoholic-drinks producer Diageo plc, based in London. History See also: Guinness family Sign at the Market Street entrance of the St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin, Ireland Crane Street Gate Guinness Brewery in Dublin, Ireland Arthur Guinness started brewing ales in 1759 at the St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin. On 31 December 1759, he signed a 9,000 year lease at £45 per annum for the unused brewery.[7][8][9] Ten years later, on 19 May 1769, Guinness first exported his ale: he shipped six-and-a-half barrels to Great Britain. Arthur Guinness started selling the dark beer porter in 1778.[10] The first Guinness beers to use the term were Single Stout and Double Stout in the 1840s.[11] Throughout the bulk of its history, Guinness produced only three variations of a single beer type: porter or single stout, double or extra and foreign stout for export.[12] "Stout" originally referred to a beer's strength, but eventually shifted meaning toward body and colour.[13] Porter was also referred to as "plain", as mentioned in the famous refrain of Flann O'Brien's poem "The Workman's Friend": "A pint of plain is your only man."[14] Already one of the top-three British and Irish brewers, Guinness's sales soared from 350,000 barrels in 1868 to 779,000 barrels in 1876.[12] In October 1886 Guinness became a public company and was averaging sales of 1.138 million barrels a year. This was despite the brewery's refusal to either advertise or offer its beer at a discount.[12] Even though Guinness owned no public houses, the company was valued at £6 million and shares were 20 times oversubscribed, with share prices rising to a 60 per cent premium on the first day of trading.[12] The breweries pioneered several quality control efforts. The brewery hired the statistician William Sealy Gosset in 1899, who achieved lasting fame under the pseudonym "Student" for techniques developed for Guinness, particularly Student's t-distribution and the even more commonly known Student's t-test. By 1900 the brewery was operating unparalleled welfare schemes for its 5,000 employees.[12] By 1907 the welfare schemes were costing the brewery £40,000 a year, which was one-fifth of the total wages bill.[12] The improvements were suggested and supervised by Sir John Lumsden. By 1914, Guinness was producing 2.652 million barrels of beer a year, which was more than double that of its nearest competitor Bass, and was supplying more than 10 per cent of the total UK beer market.[12] When the First World War broke out in 1914, employees at Guinness St. James Brewery were encouraged to join the British forces. Over 800 employees served in the war. This was made possible due to a number of measures put in place by Guinness: soldiers' families were paid half wages, and jobs were guaranteed upon their return. Of the 800 employees who fought, 103 did not return.[15][16] During the Second World War, the demand for Guinness among the British was one of the main reasons why the UK lifted commerce restrictions imposed in 1941 to force Ireland into supporting the Allied Powers.[17] Before 1939, if a Guinness brewer wished to marry a Catholic, his resignation was requested.[18] According to Thomas Molloy, writing in the Irish Independent, "It had no qualms about selling drink to Catholics but it did everything it could to avoid employing them until the 1960s."[19] Guinness thought they brewed their last porter in 1973.[13] In the 1970s, following declining sales, the decision was taken to make Guinness Extra Stout more "drinkable". The gravity was subsequently reduced, and the brand was relaunched in 1981.[20] Pale malt was used for the first time, and isomerised hop extract began to be used.[20] In 2014, two new porters were introduced: West Indies Porter and Dublin Porter.[21] Guinness acquired the Distillers Company in 1986.[22] This led to a scandal and criminal trial concerning the artificial inflation of the Guinness share price during the takeover bid engineered by the chairman, Ernest Saunders.[23] A subsequent £5.2 million success fee paid to an American lawyer and Guinness director, Tom Ward, was the subject of the case Guinness plc v Saunders, in which the House of Lords declared that the payment had been invalid.[24] In the 1980s, as the IRA's bombing campaign spread to London and the rest of Britain, Guinness considered scrapping the harp as its logo.[19] The company merged with Grand Metropolitan in 1997 to form Diageo.[25] Due to controversy over the merger, the company was maintained as a separate entity within Diageo and has retained the rights to the product and all associated trademarks of Guinness. The Guinness Brewery Park Royal during demolition, at its peak the largest and most productive brewery in the world. The Guinness brewery in Park Royal, London, closed in 2005. The production of all Guinness sold in the UK and Ireland was moved to St. James's Gate Brewery, Dublin.[26] Guinness had a fleet of ships, barges and yachts.[27] The Irish Sunday Independent newspaper reported on 17 June 2007 that Diageo intended to close the historic St James's Gate plant in Dublin and move to a greenfield site on the outskirts of the city.[28] This news caused some controversy when it was announced. Initially, Diageo said that talk of a move was pure speculation but in the face of mounting speculation in the wake of the Sunday Independent article, the company confirmed that it is undertaking a "significant review of its operations". This review was largely due to the efforts of the company's ongoing drive to reduce the environmental impact of brewing at the St James's Gate plant.[29] On 23 November 2007, an article appeared in the Evening Herald, a Dublin newspaper, stating that the Dublin City Council, in the best interests of the city of Dublin, had put forward a motion to prevent planning permission ever being granted for the development of the site, thus making it very difficult for Diageo to sell off the site for residential development. On 9 May 2008, Diageo announced that the St James's Gate brewery will remain open and undergo renovations, but that breweries in Kilkenny and Dundalk will be closed by 2013 when a new larger brewery is opened near Dublin. The result will be a loss of roughly 250 jobs across the entire Diageo/Guinness workforce in Ireland.[30] Two days later, the Sunday Independent again reported that Diageo chiefs had met with Tánaiste Mary Coughlan, the deputy leader of the Government of Ireland, about moving operations to Ireland from the UK to benefit from its lower corporation tax rates. Several UK firms have made the move in order to pay Ireland's 12.5 per cent rate rather than the UK's 28 per cent rate.[31] Diageo released a statement to the London stock exchange denying the report.[32] Despite the merger that created Diageo plc in 1997, Guinness has retained its right to the Guinness brand and associated trademarks and thus continues to trade under the traditional Guinness name despite trading under the corporation name Diageo for a brief period in 1997. In 2017 Diageo made their beer suitable for consumption by vegetarians and vegans by introducing a new filtration process that avoided the use of isinglass from fish bladders to filter out yeast particles.[33][34][35] Composition Guinness stout is made from water, barley, roast malt extract, hops, and brewer's yeast.[36] A portion of the barley is roasted to give Guinness its dark colour and characteristic taste.[36] It is pasteurised and filtered.[37] Until the late 1950s, Guinness was still racked into wooden casks. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Guinness ceased brewing cask-conditioned beers and developed a keg brewing system with aluminium kegs replacing the wooden casks; these were nicknamed "iron lungs".[38] Until 2016 the production of Guinness, as with many beers, involved the use of isinglass made from fish. Isinglass was used as a fining agent for settling out suspended matter in the vat. The isinglass was retained in the floor of the vat but it was possible that minute quantities might be carried over into the beer.[39][40][41][42] Diageo announced in February 2018 that the use of isinglass in draught Guinness was to be discontinued and an alternative clarification agent would be used instead. This has made draught Guinness acceptable to vegans and vegetarians. Present day Guinness A pint of Guinness Arguably its biggest change to date, in 1959 Guinness began using nitrogen, which changed the fundamental texture and flavour of the Guinness of the past as nitrogen bubbles are much smaller than CO2,[43] giving a "creamier" and "smoother" consistency over a sharper and traditional CO2 taste.[44] This step was taken after Michael Ash—a mathematician turned brewer—discovered the mechanism to make this possible.[45] Nitrogen is less soluble than carbon dioxide, which allows the beer to be put under high pressure without making it fizzy.[44] High pressure of the dissolved gas is required to enable very small bubbles to be formed by forcing the draught beer through fine holes in a plate in the tap, which causes the characteristic "surge" (the widget in cans and bottles achieves the same effect).[44] This "widget" is a small plastic ball containing the nitrogen.[44] The perceived smoothness of draught Guinness is due to its low level of carbon dioxide and the creaminess of the head caused by the very fine bubbles that arise from the use of nitrogen and the dispensing method described above.[44] "Foreign Extra Stout" contains more carbon dioxide,[6] causing a more acidic taste. Contemporary Guinness Draught and Extra Stout are weaker than they were in the 19th century, when they had an original gravity of over 1.070. Foreign Extra Stout and Special Export Stout, with ABV of 7.5% and 9% respectively, are perhaps closest to the original in character.[46] Although Guinness is black, and is referred to as "the black stuff",[47][48] it is also "officially" referred to as a very dark shade of ruby.[49][36] The most recent change in alcohol content from the Import Stout to the Extra Stout was due to a change in distribution through North American market. Consumer complaints influenced subsequent distribution and bottle changes.[50] Health A Guinness advertisem*nt states "Guinness is good for you" Studies have shown that moderate consumption of alcoholic drinks can be beneficial to the heart. A 2003 study found that stouts such as Guinness could have an additional benefit by reducing the deposit of harmful cholesterol on artery walls. This was attributed to the higher levels of antioxidants in stouts than in lagers.[51][52] Guinness ran an advertising campaign in the 1920s which stemmed from market research – when people told the company that they felt good after their pint, the slogan, created by Dorothy L. Sayers[53][54]–"Guinness is Good for You". Advertising for alcoholic drinks that implies improved physical performance or enhanced personal qualities is now prohibited in Ireland.[55] Diageo, the company that now manufactures Guinness, says: "We never make any medical claims for our drinks."[56] Varieties Guinness Extra Stout and Guinness Draught Guinness Original/Extra Stout Can Guinness stout is available in a number of variants and strengths, which include: Guinness Draught, the standard draught beer sold in kegs (but exist also a texture-like version in widget cans and bottles): 4.1 to 4.3% alcohol by volume (ABV); the Extra Cold is served through a super cooler at 3.5 °C (38.3 °F).[57] Guinness Original/Extra Stout: 4.2 to 5.6% in the United States. 5% in Canada, and most of Europe; 4.2 or 4.3% ABV in Ireland and some European countries, 4.1% in Germany, 4.8% in Namibia and South Africa, and 6% in Australia and Japan.[citation needed] Guinness Foreign Extra Stout: 7.5% ABV version sold in Europe, Africa, the Caribbean, Asia, and the United States. The basis is an unfermented but hopped Guinness wort extract shipped from Dublin, which is added to local ingredients and fermented locally. The strength can vary, for example, it is sold at 5% ABV in China, 6.5% ABV in Jamaica and East Africa, 6.8% in Malaysia, 7.5% in the United States, and 8% ABV in Singapore.[58][59] In Nigeria a proportion of sorghum is used. Foreign Extra Stout is blended with a small amount of intentionally soured beer. Formerly, it was blended with beer that soured naturally as a result of fermenting in ancient oak tuns with a Brettanomyces population; it is now made with pasteurised beer that has been soured bacterially.[60] It was previously known as West Indies Porter, then Extra Stout and finally Foreign Extra Stout.[18] It was first made available in the UK in 1990.[18] Guinness Special Export Stout, Commissioned by John Martin of Belgium in 1912.[61] The first variety of Guinness to be pasteurised, in 1930.[62] 8% ABV. Guinness Bitter, an English-style bitter beer: 4.4% ABV. Guinness Extra Smooth, a smoother stout sold in Ghana, Cameroon and Nigeria: 5.5% ABV. Malta Guinness, a non-alcoholic sweet drink, produced in Nigeria and exported to the UK, East Africa, and Malaysia. Guinness Zero ABV, a non-alcoholic beverage sold in Indonesia.[63] Guinness Mid-Strength, a low-alcohol stout test-marketed in Limerick, Ireland in March 2006[64] and Dublin from May 2007:[65] 2.8% ABV. Guinness Red, brewed in exactly the same way as Guinness except that the barley is only lightly roasted so that it produces a lighter, slightly fruitier red ale; test-marketed in Britain in February 2007: 4% ABV.[66] 250 Anniversary Stout, released in the U.S., Australia and Singapore on 24 April 2009;[67] 5% ABV. Guinness West Indies, a Porter which imitates the 1801 variety with notes of toffee and chocolate: 6% ABV. In October 2005, Guinness announced the Brewhouse Series, a limited-edition collection of draught stouts available for roughly six months each. There were three beers in the series. Brew 39 was sold in Dublin from late 2005 until early 2006. It had the same alcohol content (ABV) as Guinness Draught, used the same gas mix and settled in the same way, but had a slightly different taste. Many found it to be lighter in taste, somewhat closer to Beamish stout than standard Irish Guinness.[68] The Beamish & Crawford Brewery was established in 1792 in the City of Cork, and was bought by Guinness in 1833.[69] Toucan Brew was introduced in May 2006. It was named after the cartoon toucan used in many Guinness advertisem*nts. This beer had a crisper taste with a slightly sweet aftertaste due to its triple-hopped brewing process. North Star was introduced in October 2006 and sold into late 2007. Three million pints of North Star were sold in the latter half of 2007.[70] Despite an announcement in June 2007 that the fourth Brewhouse stout would be launched in October that year,[71] no new beer appeared and, at the end of 2007, the Brewhouse series appeared to have been quietly cancelled. From early 2006, Guinness marketed a "surger" unit in Britain.[72] This surger device, marketed for use with cans consumed at home, is "said to activate the gases in the canned beer" by sending an "ultra-sonic pulse through the pint glass" sitting upon the device.[73] Surgers are also in use in other countries.[citation needed] The surger for the US market was announced in November 2007.[74] Withdrawn Guinness variants include Guinness's Brite Lager, Guinness's Brite Ale, Guinness Light, Guinness XXX Extra Strong Stout, Guinness Cream Stout, Guinness Milk Stout, Guinness Irish Wheat,[75] Guinness Gold, Guinness Pilsner, Guinness Breó (a slightly citrusy wheat beer), Guinness Shandy, and Guinness Special Light.[76] Breó (meaning 'glow' in Irish)[77] was a wheat beer; it cost around IR£5 million to develop.[citation needed] A brewing byproduct of Guinness, Guinness Yeast Extract (GYE), was produced until the 1950s. In the UK, a HP Guinness Sauce was manufactured by Heinz and available as of 2013.[78] Kraft also licenses the name for its barbecue sauce product, Bull's-Eye Barbecue Sauce. In March 2010, Guinness began test marketing Guinness Black Lager, a new black lager, in Northern Ireland and Malaysia.[79] As of September 2010, Guinness Black Lager is no longer readily available in Malaysia. In October 2010, Guinness began selling Foreign Extra Stout in 4 packs of bottles in the United States.[80] Guinness Blonde American Lager In 2014, Guinness released Guinness Blonde, a lager brewed in Latrobe, Pennsylvania using a combination of Guinness yeast and American ingredients.[81] When Guinness opened their new brewery in Baltimore, Maryland in August 2018 they recreated "Blonde" to "Baltimore Blonde" by adjusting the grain mixture and adding Citra for a citrus flavour and removed the Mosaic hops.[82] Guinness released a lager in 2015 called Hop House 13.[83] [84] It was withdrawn from sale in the UK in May 2021, following poor sales, but remains on sale in Ireland.[85] In 2020, Guinness announced the introduction of a zero alcohol canned stout, Guinness 0.0.[86] It was withdrawn from sale almost immediately after launch, due to contamination.[87] It was relaunched in 2021 starting with pubs in mid July with cans following in late August. [88] In September 2021 Guinness Nitrosurge was released in pint sized cans which contain no widget. Similar to the Surger, nitrogen is activated using ultrasonic frequencies. Nitrosurge uses a special device attached to the top of the can which activates the nitrogen as it is being poured. [89] Pouring and serving Before the 1960s, when Guinness adopted the current system of delivery using a nitrogen/carbon dioxide gas mixture, all beer leaving the brewery was cask-conditioned. Casks newly delivered to many small pubs were often nearly unmanageably frothy, but cellar space and rapid turnover demanded that they be put into use before they could sit for long enough to settle down. As a result, a glass would be part filled with the fresh, frothy beer, allowed to stand a minute, and then topped up with beer from a cask that had been pouring longer and had calmed down a bit.[90] With the move to nitrogen gas dispense in the 1960s, it was felt important to keep the two-stage pour ritual in order to bring better consumer acceptance of the modern nitrogen-based delivery. As Guinness has not been cask-conditioned for decades, the two-stage pour has been labelled a marketing ploy that does not actually affect the beer's taste.[91] An example of the newly designed Guinness pint glass released in 2010. 2:10 Guinness Pour and Serve What Diageo calls the "perfect pint" of Draught Guinness is the product of a "double pour", which according to the company should take 119.53 seconds.[92][93][94][95] Guinness has promoted this wait with advertising campaigns such as "good things come to those who wait".[96] The brewer recommends that draught Guinness should be served at 6-7 °C (42.8 °F),[97] while Extra Cold Guinness should be served at 3.5 °C (38.6 °F).[98] Before the 21st century, it was popular to serve Guinness at cellar temperature (about 13 °C) and some drinkers preferred it at room temperature (about 20 °C).[99] According to Esquire Magazine, a pint of Guinness should be served in a slightly tulip-shaped pint glass,[100] rather than the taller European tulip or 'Nonic' glass, which contains a ridge approx 3/4 of the way up the glass. To begin the pour, the server holds the glass at a 45° angle below the tap and fills the glass 3/4 full.[100] On the way out of the tap, the beer is forced at high speed through a five-hole disc restrictor plate at the end of the tap,[100] creating friction and forcing the creation of small nitrogen bubbles[100] which form a creamy head. The server brings the glass from 45° angle to a vertical position.[101] After allowing the initial pour to settle, the server pushes the tap handle back and fills the remainder of the glass until the head forms a slight dome over the top of the glass (or "just proud of the rim").[100][102][101] In 2010, Guinness redesigned their pint glass for the first time in a decade. The new glass was designed to be taller and narrower than the previous one and featured a bevel design. The new glasses were planned to gradually replace the old ones.[103] Sinking bubbles When Guinness is poured, the gas bubbles appear to travel downwards in the glass.[104] The effect is attributed to drag; bubbles that touch the walls of a glass are slowed in their travel upwards. Bubbles in the centre of the glass are, however, free to rise to the surface, and thus form a rising column of bubbles. The rising bubbles create a current by the entrainment of the surrounding fluid. As beer rises in the centre, the beer near the outside of the glass falls. This downward flow pushes the bubbles near the glass towards the bottom. Although the effect occurs in any liquid, it is particularly noticeable in any dark nitrogen stout, as the drink combines dark-coloured liquid and light-coloured bubbles.[105][106] A study published in 2012 revealed that the effect is due to the particular shape of the glass coupled with the small bubble size found in stout beers.[107][108][109][110][111] If the vessel widens with height, then bubbles will sink along the walls – this is the case for the standard pint glass. Conversely, in an anti-pint (i.e. if the vessel narrows with height) bubbles will rise along the walls.[112] Culinary uses Guinness is frequently used as an ingredient in recipes, often to add a seemingly authentic Irish element to the menus of Irish-themed pubs[113] in the United States, where it is stirred into everything from french toast to beef stew.[114] Guinness Marmite A popular, authentic, Irish course featuring Guinness is the "Guinness and Steak Pie". The recipe includes many common Irish herbs, as well as beef brisket, cheeses, and a can of Guinness.[115] Advertising The Guinness harp motif is modelled on the Trinity College Harp. It was adopted in 1862 by the incumbent proprietor, Benjamin Lee Guinness. Harps have been a symbol of Ireland at least since the reign of Henry VIII. Guinness registered their harp as a trademark shortly after the passing of the Trade Marks Registration Act of 1875. It faces right instead of left, and so can be distinguished from the Irish coat of arms.[116] Since the 1930s, in the face of falling sales, Guinness has had a long history of marketing campaigns, from television advertisem*nts to beer mats and posters. Before then, Guinness had almost no advertising, instead allowing word of mouth to sell the product.[117] The most notable and recognisable series of advertisem*nts was created by S.H. Benson's advertising, primarily drawn by the artist John Gilroy, in the 1930s and 1940s.[117] Benson created posters that included phrases such as "Guinness for Strength", "Lovely Day for a Guinness", "Guinness Makes You Strong", "My Goodness My Guinness" (or, alternatively, "My Goodness, My Christmas, It's Guinness!"), and most famously, "Guinness is Good For You".[117] The posters featured Gilroy's distinctive artwork and more often than not featured animals such as a kangaroo, ostrich, seal, lion and notably a toucan, which has become as much a symbol of Guinness as the harp.[117] (An advertisem*nt from the 1940s ran with the following jingle: "Toucans in their nests agree/Guinness is good for you/Try some today and see/What one or toucan do.") Dorothy L. Sayers and Bobby Bevan copywriters at Benson's also worked on the campaign; a biography of Sayers notes that she created a sketch of the toucan and wrote several of the adverts in question. Guinness advertising paraphernalia, notably the pastiche booklets illustrated by Ronald Ferns, attract high prices on the collectable market.[118][page needed] Guinness slogan from the 1920s to the 1960s[119] Many of the best known Guinness television commercials of the 1970s and 1980s were created by British director, Len Fulford.[120] In 1983, a conscious marketing decision was made to turn Guinness into a "cult" beer in the UK, amidst declining sales.[121] The move halted the sales decline. The Guardian described the management of the brand: "they've spent years now building a brand that's in complete opposition to cheap lagers, session drinking and crowds of young men boozing in bars. They've worked very hard to help Guinness drinkers picture themselves as twinkly-eyed, Byronic bar-room intellectuals, sitting quietly with a pint and dreaming of poetry and impossibly lovely redheads running barefoot across the peat. You have a pint or two of Guinness with a slim volume of Yeats, not eight mates and a 19-pint bender which ends in tattoos, A&E [the ED] and herpes from a hen party."[122] In the late 1980s and early 1990s, in the UK, there was a series of "darkly" humorous adverts, featuring actor Rutger Hauer, with the theme "Pure Genius", extolling its qualities in brewing and target market.[123] The 1994–1995 Anticipation campaign, featuring actor Joe McKinney dancing to "Guaglione" by Perez Prado while his pint settled, became a legend in Ireland and put the song to number one in the charts for several weeks. The advertisem*nt was also popular in the UK where the song reached number two.[citation needed] From 1999 to 2006, the Michael Power advertising character was the cornerstone of a major marketing campaign to promote Guinness products in Africa. The character, played by Cleveland Mitchell, was portrayed to have been born in Jamaica and raised in Great Britain.[124] By 2003, it became one of the best-known alcohol advertising campaigns in Africa. Jo Foster of the BBC referred to Power as "Africa's very own 'James Bond'".[125] Advertisem*nt in Ballyshannon, County Donegal, Ireland In 2000, Guinness's 1999 advertisem*nt "Surfer" was named the best television commercial of all time, in a UK poll conducted by The Sunday Times and Channel 4. This advertisem*nt is inspired by the famous 1980s Guinness TV and cinema ad, "Big Wave", centred on a surfer riding a wave while a bikini-clad sunbather takes photographs. The 1980s advertisem*nt not only remained a popular iconic image in its own right; it also entered the Irish cultural memory through inspiring a well-known line in Christy Moore's song "Delirium Tremens" (1985). "Surfer" was produced by the advertising agency Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO; the advertisem*nt can be downloaded from their website.[126] Guinness won the 2001 Clio Award as the Advertiser of the Year, citing the work of five separate ad agencies around the world.[127] In 2002, Guinness applied the Michael Power formula to Asia with the character Adam King.[128] The campaign featured such tag lines as: "Everyday someone, somewhere achieves something new. Sometimes on a grand, dramatic scale. Sometimes on a more personal scale." As of 2004, Guinness ranked among the top three beer labels in Singapore and Malaysia, with a 20 per cent market share across Southeast Asia. Malaysia was the brand's third-largest market in the region and the sixth largest market worldwide.[129] In 2003, the Guinness TV campaign featuring Tom Crean won the gold Shark Award at the International Advertising Festival of Ireland,[130] while in 2005 their Irish Christmas campaign won a silver Shark.[131] This TV ad has been run every Christmas since its debut in December 2004 and features pictures of snow falling in places around Ireland, evoking the James Joyce story "The Dead", finishing at St. James's Gate Brewery with the line: "Even at the home of the black stuff they dream of a white one".[132][133] Their UK commercial "noitulovE", first broadcast in October 2005, was the most-awarded commercial worldwide in 2006.[134] In it, three men drink a pint of Guinness, then begin to both walk and evolve backward. Their "reverse evolution" passes through an ancient hom*o sapiens, a monkey, a flying lemur, a pangolin, an ichthyosaur, and a velociraptor, until finally settling on a mud skipper drinking dirty water, which then expresses its disgust at the taste of the stuff, followed by the line: "Good Things Come To Those Who Wait". This was later modified to have different endings to advertise Guinness Extra Cold, often shown as "break bumpers" at the beginning and end of commercial breaks. The second endings show either the hom*o sapiens being suddenly frozen in a block of ice, the ichthyosaurs being frozen while swimming, or the pool of muddy water freezing over as the mudskipper takes a sip, freezing his tongue to the surface.[citation needed] Advertisem*nt in Sierra Leone, 1968 Two further advertisem*nts in 2006 and early 2007, "Hands" and "St. Patrick's Hands", were created by animator Michael Schlingmann for Abbott Mead Vickers BBDO. They feature a pair of hands, animated in stop motion under a rostrum camera. "Hands" focuses on the 119.53 seconds it takes to pour a pint, and "St. Patrick's Hands is a spoof of Riverdance, with the animated hands doing the dancing.[citation needed] In 2006, Diageo, owner of the Guinness brand, replaced the Michael Power campaign with the "Guinness Greatness" campaign, which they claim emphasises the "drop of greatness" in everyone, in contrast to the high-tension heroics of the Power character.[128] Guinness' 2007 advertisem*nt, directed by Nicolai Fuglsig and filmed in Argentina, is entitled "Tipping Point". It involves a large-scale domino chain reaction and, with a budget of £10 million, was the most expensive advertisem*nt by the company at that point.[135] The 2000s also saw a series of television advertisem*nts, entitled "Brilliant!" in which two crudely animated Guinness brewmasters would discuss the beer, particularly the ability to drink it straight from the bottle. The two would almost always react to their discoveries with the catchphrase "Brilliant!", hence the campaign's title. In 2009, the "To Arthur" advertisem*nt, which started with two friends realising the company's long history, hail each other by lifting up their glasses and saying: "to Arthur!". The hailing slowing spread throughout the bar to the streets outside, and finally around the world. The advertisem*nt ends with the voiceover: "Join the worldwide celebration, of a man named Arthur".[136] This gave rise to the event now known as Arthur's Day. "Arthur's Day is a series of events and celebrations taking place around the world to celebrate the life and legacy of Arthur Guinness and the much-loved Guinness beer which Arthur brought to the world."[137] Starting in 2011, the Guinness brand issued a series of Ireland-wide advertisem*nts featuring everyday Irish people as part of their "Guinness is Good For Us" campaign referencing the iconic "Guinness is Good For You" campaign of the 1920s to 1960s.[citation needed] Worldwide sales A Guinness counter mount and tap in a Johannesburg pub In 2006, sales of Guinness in Ireland and the United Kingdom declined 7 per cent.[138] Despite this, Guinness still accounts for more than a quarter of all beer sold in Ireland.[139] By 2015, sales were on the rise in Ireland but flat globally.[140] Guinness began retailing in India in 2007.[141][142] Guinness has a significant share of the African beer market, where it has been sold since 1827. About 40 per cent of worldwide total Guinness volume is brewed and sold in Africa, with Foreign Extra Stout the most popular variant. Three of the five Guinness-owned breweries worldwide are located in Africa.[143] The Michael Power advertising campaign was a critical success for Guinness in Africa, running for nearly a decade before being replaced in 2006 with "Guinness Greatness".[citation needed] The beer is brewed under licence internationally in several countries, including Nigeria,[144][145] the Bahamas, Canada,[146] Cameroon, Kenya, Uganda, South Korea, Namibia, and Indonesia.[147] The unfermented but hopped Guinness wort extract is shipped from Dublin and blended with beer brewed locally.[citation needed] In 2017 Guinness teamed up with AB InBev to distribute Guinness in mainland China. China is the single biggest worldwide alcohol market, especially for imported craft beers like Guinness.[148] The UK is the only sovereign state to consume more Guinness than Ireland. The third-largest Guinness drinking nation is Nigeria, followed by the USA;[149] the United States consumed more than 950 million hectoliters (2.1×1010 imp gal; 2.5×1010 U.S. gal) of Guinness in 2010.[139] Merchandising The Guinness Storehouse at St. James's Gate Brewery in Dublin is the most popular tourist attraction in Ireland (attracting over 1.7 million visitors in 2017) where a self-guided tour includes an account of the ingredients used to make the stout and a description of how it is made.[150] Visitors can sample the smells of each Guinness ingredient in the Tasting Rooms, which are coloured with a unique lighting design that emits Guinness's gold and black branding.[151] The Guinness Book of Records started as a Guinness marketing giveaway, based on an idea of its then Managing Director, Sir Hugh Beaver. Its holding company, Guinness World Records Ltd, was owned by Guinness plc, subsequently Diageo, until 2001. References "Frequently Asked Questions". Guinness & Co. 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Benilov ES, Cummins CP, Lee WT (February 2013). "Why do bubbles in Guinness sink?". American Journal of Physics. 81 (2): 88–91. arXiv:1205.5233. Bibcode:2013AmJPh..81...88B. doi:10.1119/1.4769377. S2CID 119213013. "Irish Mathematicians Solve The Guinness Sinking Bubble Problem". MIT. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. "Why do Guinness bubbles sink? Science has the answer". NBC News. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. "Why do bubbles in Guinness sink? – Cathal Cummins – MACSI" on YouTube Zeldes, Leah A. (10 March 2010). "'Irish' food in Chicago isn't quite so in Ireland". Chicago Sun-Times. Archived from the original on 13 April 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010. Zeldes, Leah A. (10 March 2010). "Eat this! (St. Patrick's Day edition): Guinness, an iconic taste of Ireland". Dining Chicago. Chicago's Restaurant & Entertainment Guide, Inc. Archived from the original on 15 March 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2010. Oliver, Jamie (20 January 2008). "Jamie Oliver's Steak, Guinness And Cheese Pie". Epicurious. Retrieved 22 July 2011. Yenne, Bill (2007). Guinness: The 250 Year Quest for the Perfect Pint. John Wiley & Sons. p. 38. ISBN 978-0-470-12052-1. the specific harp that benjamin lee chose. Russell, Mallory. "250 YEARS OF GENIUS: A Look At The Evolution Of Guinness Advertising". Business Insider. Retrieved 10 January 2020. Griffiths, Mark (2004). Guinness is Guinness: The Colourful Story of a Black and White Brand. Cyan Communications. ISBN 0-9542829-4-9. Royal College of Physicians. Guinness is good for you? Davison, Phil (30 December 2011). "Len Fulford: Director behind the 'Go to work on an egg' and Guinness 'toucan' commercials". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012. "New chief for Watney Mann (Business Appointments)". The Times (61433): 19, col A. 18 January 1983. Hayward, Tim (17 September 2009). "'Guinness mid-strength' on trial". The Guardian. London. "The Best Ever Guinness Adverts? Guinness Pure Genius & Surfer". SEIKK. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 28 June 2022. Parkinson, David. "Critical Assignment". RadioTimes. Retrieved 31 July 2016. Foster, Jo (17 April 2003). "Africa's very own 'James Bond'". BBC. Retrieved 12 August 2017. "Award-winning 'Surfer' advert". Archived from the original on 26 June 2008. "CLIO Awards, One of the World's Most Prestigious Industry Competitions, Announces Winners for the 2010 Interactive & Innovative Awards in New York City". CLIO Awards. 27 May 2010. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2010. Waithaka, Wanjiru (30 August 2007). "Guinness courts football fans in new campaign". Business Daily. White, Amy (27 August 2004). "Southeast Asia: Guinness steps up beer label war with Adam King". BrandRepublic. "Sharks Award Winners 2003" (PDF). International Advertising Festival of Ireland. 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2009. "Winners of the 43rd Shark Awards 2005" (PDF). International Advertising Festival of Ireland. 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2009. Gordon, Caoimhe. "The best Christmas adverts". Trinity News. Retrieved 3 September 2016. "Irish International Christmas Guinness". Irish International. Retrieved 3 September 2016. Gunn, D.; Wilkie, E. (30 November 2006). The Gunn Report and Showreel of the Year (8th ed.). FlaxmanWilkie. ISBN 978-0-9551646-1-3. "Drinks Giant Raises A Glass To New Advert". Sky News. British Sky Broadcasting. 8 November 2007. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 22 August 2010. "Guinness 250 Advert – To Arthur". YouTube. 19 September 2009. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021. Retrieved 16 June 2011. "Join the worldwide celebration of Arthur's Day 2010". 23 September 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. Retrieved 16 June 2011. Harrison, Shane (6 March 2007). "Guinness sales losing their froth". BBC News. Retrieved 22 August 2010. "Login to Passport". Euromonitor International. "Sales of Guinness up in Ireland but unchanged globally". Irish Times. "INDIA: Diageo to up Guinness India roll-out". 18 April 2007. "Diageo may brew Guinness beer locally". 30 November 2007. Saladino, Emily (12 March 2013). "11 Things You Probably Didn't Know About Guinness". Food Republic. Retrieved 1 December 2016. Purefoy, Christian (12 August 2009). "Guinness' success highlights opportunity in Nigeria, Africa". CNN. Retrieved 22 August 2010. "Guinness Foreign Extra Stout (Nigeria)". RateBeer. Retrieved 22 August 2010. "Guinness FAQs". Archived from the original on 14 May 2008. "Guinness Foreign Extra Stout (Indonesian)". RateBeer. Retrieved 22 August 2010. Natalie Wang (31 August 2017). "AB InBev to distribute Guinness in China". drinks business. Union Press. "Last orders for London Guinness". BBC News. 15 April 2004. Retrieved 29 March 2011. Kirsner, Scott (May 2002). "Brand Marketing:"guinness storehouse is a way to get in touch with a new generation"". Fast Company (58): 92–100. ProQuest 228787080. "The Tasting Rooms, Guinness Storehouse". Michael Grubb Studio. 28 October 2013. Retrieved 20 February 2014. Further reading Patrick Lynch and John Vaizey – Guinness's Brewery in the Irish Economy: 1759–1876 (1960) Cambridge University Press Frederic Mullally – The Silver Salver: The Story of the Guinness Family (1981) Granada, ISBN 0-246-11271-9 Brian Sibley – The Book Of Guinness Advertising (1985) Guinness Books, ISBN 0-85112-400-3 Peter Pugh – Is Guinness Good for You: The Bid for Distillers – The Inside Story (1987) Financial Training Publications, ISBN 1-85185-074-0 Edward Guinness – The Guinness Book of Guinness (1988) Guinness Books Michele Guinness – The Guinness Legend: The Changing Fortunes of a Great Family (1988) Hodder and Stoughton General Division, ISBN 0-340-43045-1 Jonathan Guinness – Requiem for a Family Business (1997) Macmillan Publishing, ISBN 0-333-66191-5 Derek Wilson – Dark and Light: The Story of the Guinness Family (1998) George Weidenfeld & Nicolson, Ltd., ISBN 0-297-81718-3 S. R. Dennison and Oliver MacDonagh – Guinness 1886–1939: From Incorporation to the Second World War (1998) Cork University Press, ISBN 1-85918-175-9 Jim Davies – The Book of Guinness Advertising (1998) Guinness Media Inc., ISBN 0-85112-067-9 Al Byrne – Guinness Times: My Days in the World’s Most Famous Brewery (1999) Town House, ISBN 1-86059-105-1 Michele Guinness – The Guinness Spirit: Brewers, Bankers, Ministers and Missionaries (1999) Hodder and Stoughton, ISBN 0-340-72165-0 Tony Corcoran – The Goodness of Guinness: The Brewery, Its People and the City of Dublin (2005) Liberties Press, ISBN 0-9545335-7-7 Mark Griffiths – Guinness is Guinness... the colourful story of a black and white brand (2005) Cyanbooks, London. ISBN 1-904879-28-4. Charles Gannon – Cathal Gannon – The Life and Times of a Dublin Craftsman (2006) Lilliput Press, Dublin. ISBN 1-84351-086-3. Bill Yenne – Guinness The 250-year quest for the perfect pint (2007) John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. ISBN 978-0-470-12052-1. Iorwerth Griffiths – 'Beer and Cider in Ireland: The Complete Guide' (2008) Liberties Press ISBN 978-1-905483-17-4 P. Guinness – Arthur's Round Peter Owen, London 2008, ISBN 978-0-7206-1296-7 David Hughes, A Bottle of Guinness Please, 2006, Phimboy, ISBN 0-9553713-0-9 Joe Joyce – The Untold Story of the Guinness Family – Poolbeg press ISBN 9781842234037 Edward J. Bourke, The Guinness story, The Family, The Business, The Black Stuff, 2009 O'Brien press ISBN 978-1-84717-145-0 Breweriana refers to articles containing a brewery or brand name, such as beer cans, beer bottles, bottle openers, beer labels, tin signs, beer mats, beer trays, beer tap, wooden cases and neon signs. United States In the US, the National Association of Breweriana Advertising (NABA) was formed in 1972. NABA publishes The Breweriana Collector, a quarterly publication. The term Breweriana is also utilized by other collector Associations, including The East Coast Breweriana Association and the American Breweriana Association. The ABA National Brewery Museum & Research Library, at Potosi Brewing Company in Wisconsin, preserves the history of America's breweries with permanent and rotating displays of breweriana, from beer bottles and cans, glasses, coasters, advertising materials and other collectibles.[1] World wide The Brewery Collectibles World Convention was formed in Moutfort in 2012 by 16 collectors clubs. Today over 70 clubs are BCWC members.[2] World Conventions: 2013 in Martin, Slovakia 2015 in Milwaukee, USA 2017 in Tychy, Poland 2019 in La Plata, Argentina 2022 in Istanbul, Turkey icon Beer portal References National Brewery Museum & Research Library Retrieved 23 May 2016. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help) BCWC 2022 in Istanbul External links Embossed Beer Bottle Collection Beermat Mania - Interactive gallery of British Brewery Beermats The American Breweriana Association The ABA National Brewery Museum™ & Research Library The National Association Breweriana Advertising Pub "Ye olde pub" A thatched country pub, The Williams Arms, near Braunton, Devon, England A city pub, The World's End, Camden Town, London The Ale-House Door (painting of c. 1790 by Henry Singleton) A pub (short for public house) is a kind of drinking establishment which is licensed to serve alcoholic drinks for consumption on the premises. The term public house first appeared in the United Kingdom in late 17th century, and was used to differentiate private houses from those which were, quite literally, open to the public as "alehouses", "taverns" and "inns". By Georgian times, the term had become common parlance, although taverns, as a distinct establishment, had largely ceased to exist by the beginning of the 19th century.[1] Today, there is no strict definition, but CAMRA states a pub has four characteristics:[2] is open to the public without membership or residency serves draught beer or cider without requiring food be consumed has at least one indoor area not laid out for meals allows drinks to be bought at a bar (i.e., not only table service) The history of pubs can be traced to Roman taverns in Britain,[3][4] and through Anglo-Saxon alehouses, but it was not until the early 19th century that pubs, as they are today, first began to appear. The model also became popular in countries and regions of British influence, where pubs are often still considered to be an important aspect of their culture.[5][6][7] In many places, especially in villages, pubs are the focal point of local communities. In his 17th-century diary, Samuel Pepys described the pub as "the heart of England".[8] Although the drinks traditionally served include draught beer and cider, most also sell wine, spirits, tea, coffee, and soft drinks. Many pubs offer meals and snacks, and so-called gastro-pubs serve food in a manner akin to a restaurant. A licence is required to operate a pub and the licensee is known as the landlord or landlady, or the publican. Often colloquially referred to as their "local" by regular customers,[9] pubs are typically chosen for their proximity to home or work, good food, social atmosphere, the presence of friends and acquaintances, and the availability of pub games such as darts or snooker. Pubs often screen sporting events, such as rugby and football. The pub quiz was established in the UK in the 1970s. History Origins 1899 map showing number of public houses in a district of central London Ale was a native British drink before the arrival of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, but it was with the construction of the Roman road network that the first pubs, called tabernae, began to appear. The word survives in Modern English as "tavern."[4] After the departure of Roman authority in the 5th century and the fall of the Romano-British kingdoms, the Anglo-Saxons established alehouses that may have grown out of domestic dwellings, first attested in the 10th century. These alehouses quickly evolved into meeting houses for folk to socially congregate, gossip and arrange mutual help within their communities. The Wantage law code of Æthelred the Unready proscribes fines for breaching the peace at meetings held in alehouses.[10] Ye Olde Fighting co*cks in St Albans, Hertfordshire, which holds the Guinness World Record for the oldest pub in England A traveller in the early Middle Ages could obtain overnight accommodation in monasteries, but later a demand for hostelries grew with the popularity of pilgrimages and travel. The Hostellers of London were granted guild status in 1446 and in 1514 the guild became the Worshipful Company of Innholders.[11] A survey in 1577 of drinking establishment in England and Wales for taxation purposes[12] recorded 14,202 alehouses, 1,631 inns, and 329 taverns, representing one pub for every 187 people.[13] Inns Main article: Inn Peasants before an Inn by Dutch artist Jan Steen c. 1653 Inns are buildings where travellers can seek lodging and, usually, food and drink. They are typically located in the country or along a highway. In Europe, they possibly first sprang up when the Romans built a system of roads two millennia ago.[14] Some inns in Europe are several centuries old. In addition to providing for the needs of travellers, inns traditionally acted as community gathering places. In Europe, it is the provision of accommodation,[15] if anything, that now distinguishes inns from taverns, alehouses and pubs. The latter tend to provide alcohol (and, in the UK, soft drinks and often food), but less commonly accommodation. Inns tend to be older and grander establishments: historically they provided not only food and lodging, but also stabling and fodder for the traveller's horse(s) and on some roads fresh horses for the mail coach. Famous London inns include The George, Southwark and The Tabard. There is, however, no longer a formal distinction between an inn and other kinds of establishment. Many pubs use "Inn" in their name, either because they are long established former coaching inns, or to summon up a particular kind of image, or in many cases simply as a pun on the word "in", as in "The Welcome Inn", the name of many pubs in Scotland. The original services of an inn are now also available at other establishments, such as hotels, lodges, and motels, which focus more on lodging customers than on other services, although they usually provide meals; pubs, which are primarily alcohol-serving establishments; and restaurants and taverns, which serve food and drink. In North America, the lodging aspect of the word "inn" lives on in hotel brand names like Holiday Inn, and in some state laws that refer to lodging operators as innkeepers. The Inns of Court and Inns of Chancery in London started as ordinary inns where barristers met to do business, but became institutions of the legal profession in England and Wales. Advent of the modern pub Goldfinger Tavern, Highworth, an example of a mid-20th-century pub It was not until the 19th century that pubs as we know them today first began to appear.[16] Before this time alehouses were largely indistinguishable from private houses and the poor standard of rural roads meant that, away from the larger towns, the only beer available was often that which had been brewed by the publican himself.[17] With the arrival of the Industrial Revolution, many areas of the United Kingdom were transformed by a surge in industrial activity and rapid population growth. There was huge demand for beer and for venues where the public could engage in social interaction, but there was also intense competition for customers. Gin houses and palaces were becoming increasingly popular, while the Beerhouse Act of 1830 resulted in a proliferation of beerhouses. By the mid-19th century pubs were being widely purpose-built, allowing their owners to incorporate architectural features which distinguished them from private houses and made them stand out from the competition. Many existing public houses were also redeveloped at this time, borrowing features from other building types and gradually developing the characteristics which go to make pubs the instantly recognisable institutions that exist today. In particular, and contrary to the intentions of the Beerhouse Act, many drew inspiration from the gin houses and palaces. Bar counters had been an early adoption, but ornate mirrors, etched glass, polished brass fittings and lavishly tiled surfaces were all features that had first made their appearance in gin houses. Innovations such as the introduction of hand pumps (or beer engines) allowed a greater number of people to be served in less time, while technological advances in the brewing industry and improved transportation links made it possible for breweries to deliver their products far away from where they were produced.[18] Tied house system See also: Pub chain and Tied house The latter half of the 19th century saw increased competition within the brewing industry and, in an attempt to secure markets for their own products, breweries began rapidly buying local pubs and directly employing publicans to run them. Although some tied houses had existed in larger British towns since the 17th century, this represented a fundamental shift in the way that many pubs were operated and the period is now widely regarded as the birth of the tied house system.[19] Decreasing numbers of free houses and difficulties in obtaining new licences meant a continual expansion of their tied estates was the only feasible way for breweries to generate new trade. By the end of the century more than 90 percent of public houses in England were owned by breweries and the only practical way brewers could now grow their tied estates was to turn on each other.[20] Buy-outs and amalgamations became commonplace and by the end of the 1980s there were only six large brewers left in the UK, collectively known as the Big Six; Allied, Bass, Courage, Grand Metropolitan, Scottish & Newcastle and Whitbread.[21] In an attempt to increase the number of free houses, by forcing the big breweries to sell their tied houses, the Government introduced The Beer Orders in 1989. The result, however, was that the Big Six melted away into other sectors; selling their brewing assets and spinning off their tied houses, largely into the hands of branded pub chains, called pubcos. As these were not brewers, they were not governed by the Beer Orders and tens of thousands of pubs remain tied, much in the same way that they had been previously. In reality, government interference did very little to improve Britain's tied house system and all its large breweries are now in the hands of foreign or multi-national companies. [22] Licensing laws The interior of a typical British pub There was regulation of public drinking spaces in England from at least the 15th century. In 1496, under, Henry VII, an act was passed, "against vagabonds and beggers" (11 Hen. VII c2), that included a clause empowering two justices of the peace, "to rejecte and put awey comen ale-selling in tounes and places where they shall think convenyent, and to take suertie of the keepers of ale-houses in their gode behavyng by the discrecion of the seid justices, and in the same to be avysed and aggreed at the tyme of their sessions."[23] The Beerhouse Act of 1830 is widely considered to be a milestone in the history of public houses. Gin was popularised in England in the late 17th century, largely because it provided an alternative to French brandy at a time of political and religious conflict between Britain and France.[24] Because of its cheapness, gin became popular with the poor, eventually leading to a period of drunkenness and lawlessness, known as the Gin Craze.[25][26] In the early 19th century, encouraged by a reduction of duties, gin consumption again began to rise and gin houses and gin palaces (an evolution of gin shops) began to spread from London to most towns and cities in Britain. Alarmed at the prospect of a return to the Gin Craze, the government attempted to counter the threat, and encourage the consumption of a more wholesome beverage, by introducing the Beerhouse Act of 1830. The Act introduced a new lower, and largely deregulated, tier of premises called "the beerhouse".[27] A Victorian beerhouse, now a public house, in Rotherhithe, Greater London Under the act any householder, upon payment of two guineas (roughly equal in value to £200 today), was permitted to brew and sell beer or cider in their own home. Beerhouses were not allowed to open on Sundays, or sell spirits and fortified wines; and any beerhouse discovered to be breaking these rules was closed down and the owner heavily fined.[28] Within eight years 46,000 new beerhouses opened[29] and, because operating costs were so low, huge profits were often made. The combination of increasing competition and high profits eventually led to what has been described as a golden age of pub building when many landlords extended or redeveloped their properties, adopting many of the recognisable features which still exist today. Attempts to check the growth were made from 1869 onwards, by introducing magisterial control and new licensing laws, aimed at making it harder to obtain a licence and controlling drunkenness, prostitution and undesirable conduct on licensed premises.[30][31][32][33] In the United Kingdom, restrictions were tightened considerably following the advent of the First World War.[34] The Defence of the Realm Act, along with introducing rationing and censorship of the press, restricted pubs' opening hours to 12 noon–2:30 pm and 6:30 pm–9:30 pm. Opening for the full licensed hours was compulsory, and closing time was equally firmly enforced by the police.[35][36] There was also a special case established under the State Management Scheme[37] where the brewery and licensed premises were bought and run by the state, most notably in Carlisle. Lock-in A "lock-in" is when a pub owner allows patrons to continue drinking in the pub after the legal closing time, on the theory that once the doors are locked, it becomes a private party rather than a pub. Patrons may put money behind the bar before official closing time, and redeem their drinks during the lock-in so no drinks are technically sold after closing time. The origin of the British lock-in was a reaction to 1915 changes in the licensing laws in England and Wales, which curtailed opening hours to stop factory workers from turning up drunk and harming the war effort. From then until the start of the 21st century, UK licensing laws changed very little, retaining these comparatively early closing times. The tradition of the lock-in therefore remained. Since the implementation of the Licensing Act 2003, premises in England and Wales may apply to extend their opening hours beyond 11 pm, allowing round-the-clock drinking and removing much of the need for lock-ins.[38] Since the smoking ban, some establishments operated a lock-in during which the remaining patrons could smoke without repercussions but, unlike drinking lock-ins, allowing smoking in a pub was still a prosecutable offence.[39] Smoking bans Concerns about the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation first surfaced in the 1950s and ultimately led many countries to ban or restrict smoking in specific settings, such as pubs and restaurants. Early in 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to ban smoking in all enclosed public areas. Scotland was the first UK nation to introduce a ban on indoor smoking in March 2006, followed by the rest of the UK in 2007.[40] Australia introduced a similar ban in 2006 and now has some of the world's toughest anti-smoking laws, with some territories having also banned smoking in outside public areas.[41] Some publicans raised concerns, prior to the implementation of restrictions, that a smoking ban would have a negative impact on sales.[42] The impact of the ban was mixed with some pubs suffering declining sales, and others seeing an increase, particularly in food sales.[43][44] Architecture Saloon or lounge The Eagle, City Road, Islington, London, displaying the nursery rhyme line about the pub's predecessor[45] The Clock, Birmingham – an example of a mock Tudor pub, now demolished to make way for the expansion of Birmingham Airport. Many were built between the world wars as part of the "improved" pub movement and as "roadhouse" inns—with large car parks to attract passing trade.[46] See also: Book cafe, Piano bar, and Oyster saloon By the end of the 18th century a new room in the pub was established: the saloon. Beer establishments had always provided entertainment of some sort—singing, gaming or sport. Balls Pond Road in Islington was named after an establishment run by a Mr. Ball that had a duck pond at the rear, where drinkers could, for a fee, go out and take a potshot at the ducks.[47] More common, however, was a card room or a billiard room. The saloon was a room where, for an admission fee or a higher price of drinks, singing, dancing, drama, or comedy was performed and drinks would be served at the table. From this came the popular music hall form of entertainment—a show consisting of a variety of acts. A most famous London saloon was the Grecian Saloon in The Eagle, City Road, a pub which was referenced by name in the 18th century nursery rhyme: "Up and down the City Road / In and out The Eagle / That's the way the money goes / Pop goes the weasel."[48][45] This meant that the customer had spent all his money at The Eagle, and needed to pawn his "weasel" to get some more.[48] The meaning of the "weasel" is unclear but the two most likely definitions are: a flat iron used for finishing clothing; or rhyming slang for a coat (weasel and stoat).[49] A few pubs have stage performances such as serious drama, stand-up comedy, musical bands, cabaret or striptease; however, juke boxes, karaoke and other forms of pre-recorded music have otherwise replaced the musical tradition of a piano or guitar and singing. Public bar The public bar, or tap room, was where the working class were expected to congregate and drink. It had unfurnished floorboards, sometimes covered with sawdust to absorb the spitting and spillages (known as "spit and sawdust"), bare bench seats and stools. Drinks were generally lower quality beers and liquors.[50] Public bars were seen as exclusive areas for only men; strictly enforced social etiquettes barred women from entering public bars (some pubs did not lift this rule until the 1980s).[51] In the Manchester area the public bar was known as the "vault", other rooms being the lounge and snug as usual elsewhere. The vault was a men's only bar, meant for working men in their dirty working clothes. This style was in marked contrast to the adjacent saloon or lounge bar which, by the early 20th century, was where male or accompanied female middle-class drinkers would drink. It had carpeted floors, upholstered seats, and a wider selection of better quality drinks that cost a penny or two more than those served in the public bar. By the mid 20th century, the standard of the public bar had generally improved. Pub patrons only had to choose between economy and exclusivity (or youth and age: a jukebox or dartboard). By the 1970s, divisions between saloons and public bars were being phased out, usually by the removal of the dividing wall or partition. While the names of saloon and public bar may still be seen on the doors of pubs, the prices (and often the standard of furnishings and decoration) are the same throughout the premises.[52] Most present day pubs now comprise one large room, although with the advent of gastropubs, some establishments have returned to maintaining distinct rooms or areas. Snug The "snug" was a small private room or area which typically had access to the bar and a frosted glass window, set above head height. A higher price was paid for beer in the snug and nobody could look in and see the drinkers. It was not only the wealthy visitors who would use these rooms. The snug was for patrons who preferred not to be seen in the public bar. Ladies would often enjoy a private drink in the snug in a time when it was frowned upon for women to be in a pub. The local police officer might nip in for a quiet pint, the parish priest for his evening whisky, or lovers for a rendezvous. Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) have surveyed the 50,000 pubs in Britain and they believe that there are very few pubs that still have classic snugs. These are on a historic interiors list in order that they can be preserved.[53] Counter The pub took the concept of the bar counter to serve the beer from gin palaces in the 18th century.[54] Until that time beer establishments used to bring the beer out to the table or benches, as remains the practice in (for example) beer gardens and some other drinking establishments in Germany.[55] A bar might be provided for the manager or publican to do paperwork while keeping an eye on his or her customers, and the term "bar" applied to the publican's office where one was built,[56] but beer would be tapped directly from a cask or barrel sat on a table, or kept in a separate taproom and brought out in jugs.[57] When purpose built Victorian pubs were built after the Beerhouse Act 1830,[58] the main room was the public room with a large serving bar copied from the gin houses, the idea being to serve the maximum number of people in the shortest possible time. The other, more private, rooms had no serving bar—they had the beer brought to them from the public bar. There are a number of pubs in the Midlands or the North which still retain this set up, though these days the beer is fetched by the customer themself from the taproom or public bar. One of these is The Vine, known locally as The Bull and Bladder, in Brierley Hill near Birmingham, another the co*ck at Broom, Bedfordshire a series of small rooms served drinks and food by waiting staff.[59] By the early 1970s there was a tendency to change to one large drinking room as breweries were eager to invest in interior design and theming.[60] Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the British engineer and railway builder, introduced the idea of a circular bar into the Swindon station pub in order that customers were served quickly and did not delay his trains. These island bars became popular as they also allowed staff to serve customers in several different rooms surrounding the bar.[61][62] Beer engine Main article: Beer engine A "beer engine" is a device for pumping beer, originally manually operated and typically used to dispense beer from a cask or container in a pub's basem*nt or cellar. The first beer pump known in England is believed to have been invented by John Lofting (born Netherlands 1659-d. Great Marlow Buckinghamshire 1742) an inventor, manufacturer and merchant of London. The London Gazette of 17 March 1691 published a patent in favour of John Lofting for a fire engine, but remarked upon and recommended another invention of his, for a beer pump: "Whereas their Majesties have been Graciously Pleased to grant Letters patent to John Lofting of London Merchant for a New Invented Engine for Extinguishing Fires which said Engine have found every great encouragement. The said Patentee hath also projected a Very Useful Engine for starting of beer and other liquors which will deliver from 20 to 30 barrels an hour which are completely fixed with Brass Joints and Screws at Reasonable Rates. Any Person that hath occasion for the said Engines may apply themselves to the Patentee at his house near St Thomas Apostle London or to Mr. Nicholas Wall at the Workshoppe near Saddlers Wells at Islington or to Mr. William Tillcar, Turner, his agent at his house in Woodtree next door to the Sun Tavern London." "Their Majesties" referred to were William and Mary, who had recently arrived from the Netherlands and had been appointed joint monarchs. A further engine was invented in the late eighteenth century by the locksmith and hydraulic engineer Joseph Bramah (1748–1814). Strictly the term refers to the pump itself, which is normally manually operated, though electrically powered and gas powered pumps are occasionally used.[63] When manually powered, the term "handpump" is often used to refer to both the pump and the associated handle. Companies This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Main articles: Tied house and Pub chain After the development of the large London Porter breweries in the 18th century, the trend grew for pubs to become tied houses which could only sell beer from one brewery (a pub not tied in this way was called a Free house). The usual arrangement for a tied house was that the pub was owned by the brewery but rented out to a private individual (landlord) who ran it as a separate business (even though contracted to buy the beer from the brewery). Another very common arrangement was (and is) for the landlord to own the premises (whether freehold or leasehold) independently of the brewer, but then to take a mortgage loan from a brewery, either to finance the purchase of the pub initially, or to refurbish it, and be required as a term of the loan to observe the solus tie. A trend in the late 20th century was for breweries to run their pubs directly, using managers rather than tenants. Most such breweries, such as the regional brewery Shepherd Neame in Kent and Young's and Fuller's in London, control hundreds of pubs in a particular region of the UK, while a few, such as Greene King, are spread nationally. The landlord of a tied pub may be an employee of the brewery—in which case he/she would be a manager of a managed house—or a self-employed tenant who has entered into a lease agreement with a brewery, a condition of which is the legal obligation (trade tie) only to purchase that brewery's beer. The beer selection is mainly limited to beers brewed by that particular company. The Beer Orders,[64] passed in 1989, were aimed at getting tied houses to offer at least one alternative beer, known as a guest beer, from another brewery. This law has now been repealed but while in force it dramatically altered the industry. Some pubs still offer a regularly changing selection of guest beers. Organisations such as Wetherspoons, Punch Taverns and O'Neill's were formed in the UK in the wake of the Beer Orders. A PubCo is a company involved in the retailing but not the manufacture of beverages, while a Pub chain may be run either by a PubCo or by a brewery. In 2016 a number of the largest PubCo's were regulated and tied tenants in England and Wales got new statutory rights to go free of tie or to have disputes heard by the Pubs Code Adjudicator. Pubs within a chain will usually have items in common, such as fittings, promotions, ambience and range of food and drink on offer. A pub chain will position itself in the marketplace for a target audience. One company may run several pub chains aimed at different segments of the market. Pubs for use in a chain are bought and sold in large units, often from regional breweries which are then closed down. Newly acquired pubs are often renamed by the new owners, and many people resent the loss of traditional names, especially if their favourite regional beer disappears at the same time. In 2009 about half of Britain's pubs were owned by large pub companies.[65] Brewery tap A brewery tap is the nearest outlet for a brewery's beers. It is usually a room or bar in the brewery itself, although the name may be applied to the nearest pub.[citation needed] Types A pub has no strict definition, but CAMRA states that a pub has four characteristics:[2] Open to the public without membership / residency Serve draught beer or cider without requiring food be consumed Have at least one indoor area not laid out for meals Allow drinks to be bought at a bar (i.e. not only table service) Together these characteristics differentiate pubs from restaurants and hotel bars, although some pubs also serve as restaurants or hotels. Gastropub Main article: Gastropub A gastropub is a hybrid pub and restaurant, notable for serving good quality beer, wine and food.[66] The name is a portmanteau of "gastronomy" and "public house", and was coined in 1991 when David Eyre and Mike Belben took over The Eagle pub in Clerkenwell, London.[67] The concept of a restaurant in a pub reinvigorated both pub culture and British dining,[68] though has occasionally attracted criticism for potentially removing the character of traditional pubs.[69] In 2011, The Good Food Guide suggested that the term has become irrelevant such is its commonality these days.[70] Country pub The Crown Inn Chiddingfold A "country pub" is simply a rural drinking establishment, though the term has acquired a romantic image typically of thatched roofs and whitewashed stone walls.[71] As with urban pubs, the country pub can function as a social and recreational centre, providing opportunities for folk to meet, exchange news, and cooperate on local charitable events.[72] However, that culture of functioning as a social centre for a village and rural community started to diminish in the later part of the 20th century as many country pubs either closed down, or were converted to restaurants or gastropubs.[73] Those country pubs located on main routes may once have been coaching inns, providing accommodation or refreshment for travellers before the advent of motorised transport.[74] Roadhouse The Dutch House (now closed), a typical 1930s roadhouse on the busy A20 road in Eltham, Greater London. Main article: Roadhouse (facility) The term roadhouse was originally applied to a coaching inn, but with the advent of popular travel by motor car in the 1920s and 1930s in the United Kingdom, a new type of roadhouse emerged, often located on the newly constructed arterial roads and bypasses. They were large establishments offering meals and refreshment and accommodation to motorists and parties travelling by charabanc. The largest roadhouses boasted facilities such as tennis courts and swimming pools. Their popularity ended with the outbreak of the Second World War when recreational road travel became impossible, and the advent of post-war drunk driving legislation prevented their full recovery.[75] Many of these establishments are now operated as pub restaurants or fast food outlets. Theme pub A theme pub is a pub which aligns itself to a specific culture, style or activity; often with the intention of attracting a niche clientele. Many are decorated and furnished accordingly, with the theme sometimes dictating the style of food or drink on offer too. Examples of theme pubs include sports bars, rock pubs, biker bars, Goth pubs, strip clubs, karaoke bars and Irish pubs. Micropubs Main article: Micropub In Britain, a micropub is a very small, modern, one-room pub founded on principles set up by Martyn Hillier, the creator of the first micropub, The Butchers Arms in Herne, Kent in 2005.[76][77] Micropubs are "based upon good ale and lively banter",[78] commonly with a strong focus on local cask ale.[79] It became easier to start a small pub after the passing of the 2003 Licensing Act, which became effective in 2005.[77] Other A "nolo" or "no lo" pub serves only non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages.[80][81][82] A temperance bar serves no alcohol at all. Signs The pub sign of The George, Southwark, depicting St George slaying a dragon In 1393, King Richard II of England compelled landlords to erect signs outside their premises. The legislation stated "Whosoever shall brew ale in the town with intention of selling it must hang out a sign, otherwise he shall forfeit his ale."[83] This law was to make alehouses easily visible to passing inspectors, borough ale tasters, who would decide the quality of the ale they provided. William Shakespeare's father, John Shakespeare, was one such inspector. Another important factor was that during the Middle Ages a large proportion of the population would have been illiterate and so pictures on a sign were more useful than words as a means of identifying a public house. For this reason there was often no reason to write the establishment's name on the sign and inns opened without a formal written name, the name being derived later from the illustration on the pub's sign. The earliest signs were often not painted but consisted, for example, of paraphernalia connected with the brewing process such as bunches of hops or brewing implements, which were suspended above the door of the pub. In some cases local nicknames, farming terms and puns were used. Local events were often commemorated in pub signs. Simple natural or religious symbols such as "The Sun", "The Star" and "The Cross" were incorporated into pub signs, sometimes being adapted to incorporate elements of the heraldry (e.g., the coat of arms) of the local lords who owned the lands upon which the pub stood. Some pubs have Latin inscriptions. Other subjects that lent themselves to visual depiction included the name of battles (e.g. Trafalgar), explorers, local notables, discoveries, sporting heroes and members of the royal family. Some pub signs are in the form of a pictorial pun or rebus. For example, a pub in Crowborough, East Sussex called The Crow and Gate had for some years an image of a crow with gates as wings. A British Pathe News film of 1956 shows artist Michael Farrar-Bell at work producing inn signs.[84] Most British pubs still have decorated signs hanging over their doors, and these retain their original function of enabling the identification of the pub. Today's pub signs almost always bear the name of the pub, both in words and in pictorial representation. The more remote country pubs often have stand-alone signs directing potential customers to their door. Names Main article: Pub names Pub names are used to identify and differentiate each pub. Modern names are sometimes a marketing ploy or attempt to create "brand awareness", frequently using a comic theme thought to be memorable, Slug and Lettuce for a pub chain being an example. Interesting origins are not confined to old or traditional names, however. Names and their origins can be broken up into a relatively small number of categories.[85] As many pubs are centuries old, many of their early customers were unable to read, and pictorial signs could be readily recognised when lettering and words could not be read.[86] Pubs often have traditional names. A common name is the "Marquis of Granby". These pubs were named after John Manners, Marquess of Granby, who was the son of John Manners, 3rd Duke of Rutland and a general in the 18th-century British Army. He showed a great concern for the welfare of his men, and on their retirement, provided funds for many of them to establish taverns, which were subsequently named after him.[87] All pubs granted their licence in 1780 were called the Royal George,[88] after King George III, and the twentieth anniversary of his coronation. Some names for pubs that seem absurd or whimsical have come from corruptions of old slogans or phrases, such as "The Bag o'Nails" (Bacchanals), "The Goat and Compasses" (God Encompasseth Us),[89] "The Cat and the Fiddle" (Chaton Fidèle: Faithful Kitten) and "The Bull and Bush", which purportedly celebrates the victory of Henry VIII at "Boulogne Bouche" or Boulogne-sur-Mer Harbour.[90][91] Entertainment See also: Pub games Indoor Quoits being played at a pub in Parkend, Gloucestershire. Traditional games are played in pubs, ranging from the well-known darts,[92] skittles,[93] dominoes,[94] cards and bar billiards,[95] to the more obscure Aunt Sally,[96] nine men's morris[97] and ringing the bull.[98] In the UK betting is legally limited to certain games such as cribbage or dominoes, played for small stakes. In recent decades the game of pool[99] (both the British and American versions) has increased in popularity as well as other table based games such as snooker[100] or table football becoming common. Increasingly, more modern games such as video games and slot machines are provided. Pubs hold special events, from tournaments of the aforementioned games to karaoke nights to pub quizzes. Some play pop music and hip-hop (dance bar), or show football and rugby union on big screen televisions (sports bar). Shove ha'penny[101] and Bat and trap[102] were also popular in pubs south of London. Some pubs in the UK also have football teams composed of regular customers. Many of these teams are in leagues that play matches on Sundays, hence the term "Sunday League Football". Bowling is found in association with pubs in some parts of the country and the local team will play matches against teams invited from elsewhere on the pub's bowling green. Pubs may be venues for pub songs and live music. During the 1970s pubs provided an outlet for a number of bands, such as Kilburn and the High Roads, Dr. Feelgood and The Kursaal Flyers, who formed a musical genre called Pub rock that was a precursor to Punk music. Food Further information: English cuisine Pub grub – a pie, along with a pint of beer Some pubs have a long tradition of serving food, dating back to their historic usage as inns and hotels where travellers would stay. Many pubs were drinking establishments, and little emphasis was placed on the serving of food, other than sandwiches and "bar snacks", such as pork scratchings, pickled eggs, salted crisps and peanuts which helped to increase beer sales.[103] In South East England (especially London) it was common until recent times for vendors of co*ckles, whelks, mussels, and other shellfish to sell them during the evening and at closing time. Many mobile shellfish stalls would set up near pubs, a practice that continues in London's East End. Otherwise, pickled co*ckles and mussels may be offered by the pub in jars or packets. In the 1950s some British pubs would offer "a pie and a pint", with hot individual steak and ale pies made easily on the premises by the proprietor's wife during the lunchtime opening hours.[103] The ploughman's lunch became popular in the late 1960s,[103] as did the convenient "chicken in a basket", a portion of roast chicken with chips, served on a napkin in a wicker basket.[103] Family chain pubs which served food in the evenings gained popularity in the 1970s, and included Berni Inn and Beefeater.[103] Quality dropped but variety increased with the introduction of microwave ovens and freezer food. "Pub grub" expanded to include British food items such as steak and ale pie, shepherd's pie, fish and chips, bangers and mash, Sunday roast, ploughman's lunch, chicken tikka masala, and pasties. In addition, dishes such as burgers, chicken wings, lasagne and chilli con carne are often served.[104][105] Some pubs offer elaborate hot and cold snacks free to customers at Sunday lunchtimes, to prevent them getting hungry and leaving for their lunch at home. Since the 1990s food has become a more important part of a pub's trade, and today most pubs serve lunches and dinners at the table in addition to (or instead of) snacks consumed at the bar. They may have a separate dining room. Some pubs serve meals to a higher standard, to match good restaurant standards; these are sometimes termed gastropubs. Listed CAMRA maintains a "National Inventory" of historical notability and of architecturally and decoratively notable pubs.[106] The National Trust owns thirty-six public houses of historic interest including the George Inn, Southwark, London and The Crown Liquor Saloon, Belfast, Northern Ireland.[107][108] Records The Sun Inn, Herefordshire. One of the few remaining parlour pubs 'The Crooked House', Himley, is known for the extreme lean of the building, caused by subsidence produced by mining Ye Olde Man & Scythe, Bolton Highest and remotest The highest pub in the United Kingdom is the Tan Hill Inn, Yorkshire, at 1,732 feet (528 m) above sea level. The remotest pub on the British mainland is The Old Forge in the village of Inverie, Lochaber, Scotland. There is no road access and it may only be reached by an 18-mile (29 km) walk over mountains, or a 7-mile (11 km) sea crossing.[109] Smallest Contenders for the smallest public house in the UK include:[108] The Nutshell – Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk The Lakeside Inn – Southport, Merseyside The Little Gem – Aylesford, Kent The Smiths Arms – Godmanstone, Dorset The Signal Box Inn[110] – Cleethorpes, Lincolnshire The list includes a small number of parlour pubs, one of which is the Sun Inn in Leintwardine, Herefordshire. The smallest public house in Wales is claimed by Y Goron Fach (The Little Crown) in Denbigh, with a single bar of 15 square metres (160 sq ft). Largest The largest pub in the UK is the Royal Victoria Pavilion, in Ramsgate, Kent. The venue was previously a casino and before that a theatre.[111] Oldest A number of pubs claim to be the oldest surviving establishment in the United Kingdom, although in several cases original buildings have been demolished and replaced on the same site. Others are ancient buildings that were used for purposes other than as a pub previously in their history. Ye Olde Fighting co*cks in St Albans, Hertfordshire, holds the Guinness World Record for the oldest pub in England, as it is an 11th-century structure on an 8th-century site. Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem in Nottingham is claimed to be the "oldest inn in England". It has a claimed date of 1189, based on the fact it is constructed on the site of the Nottingham Castle brewhouse; the present building dates from around 1650.[112] Likewise, The Nags Head in Burntwood, Staffordshire only dates back to the 16th century, while it has been claimed that a pub on the site is mentioned in the Domesday book, Burntwood is not in fact listed.[113] There is archaeological evidence that parts of the foundations of The Old Ferryboat Inn in Holywell may date to AD 460, and there is evidence of ale being served as early as AD 560.[114] The Bingley Arms, Bardsey, Yorkshire, is claimed to date to 905 AD. Ye Olde Salutation Inn in Nottingham dates from 1240, although the building served as a tannery and a private residence before becoming an inn sometime before the English Civil War. The Adam and Eve in Norwich was first recorded in 1249, when it was an alehouse for the workers constructing nearby Norwich Cathedral.[115] Ye Olde Man & Scythe in Bolton, Greater Manchester, is mentioned by name in a charter of 1251, but the current building is dated 1631. Its cellars are the only surviving part of the older structure. Longest and shortest name The town of Stalybridge in Greater Manchester is thought to have the pubs with both the longest and shortest names in the United Kingdom – The Old Thirteenth Cheshire Astley Volunteer Rifleman Corps Inn and the Q Inn, both operating as of 2019 (the Rifleman reopening in new premises, moving from Astley Street to premises two doors away from the Q Inn in Market Street in 2019, after being closed for three years).[116][117] The original Rifleman building retains a pub sign, and a blue plaque from 1995 recording the recognition of the name in the Guinness Book of Records.[118] Statistics The most expensive place to get a pint of beer is in Doha, Qatar, where prices average £10.30 (2019).[119] The average retail price of a pint of beer in the UK is £4.12 (2019).[119] The cheapest place to get a beer in the UK is Preston, where a pint costs on average £3.06 (2019).[119] In 2018, British people drank 7.75 billion pints of beer: 21.2 million pints a day.[120] As of 2019, there are 40,683 pubs in England, 2,901 in Wales and 3,612 in Scotland.[121] Pubs are closing at a rate of one every 12 hours (as of February 2019).[121] Decline A pub being demolished in 2008 The number of pubs in the UK has declined year on year, at least since 1982.[122] Various reasons are put forward for this, such as the failure of some establishments to keep up with customer requirements.[123] Others claim the smoking ban of 2007, intense competition from gastro-pubs, the availability of cheap alcohol in supermarkets or the general economic climate are either to blame, or are factors in the decline.[124] Changes in demographics may be an additional factor.[125] In the fifteen years to 2017 a quarter of London's pubs had closed. The closures have been ascribed to factors such as changing tastes, rise in the cost of beer due to applied taxes and the increase in the British Muslim population.[126] In 2015 the rate of pub closures came under the scrutiny of Parliament in the UK, with a promise of legislation to improve relations between owners and tenants.[127] The Lost Pubs Project listed 31,301 closed English pubs on 19 July 2016, with photographs of over 16,000.[128] By June 2022, pub numbers in England and Wales had fallen to a record low of 39,970, a loss of 7,000 in 10 years.[129] Cultural associations See also: List of pubs in the United Kingdom Inns and taverns feature throughout English literature and poetry, from The Tabard Inn in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales onwards.[130] Jamaica Inn in Cornwall inspired a novel and a film. The highwayman Dick Turpin used the Swan Inn at Woughton-on-the-Green in Buckinghamshire as his base.[131] Jamaica Inn near Bolventor in Cornwall gave its name to a 1936 novel by Daphne du Maurier and a 1939 film directed by Alfred Hitchco*ck.[132] In the 1920s John Fothergill (1876–1957) was the innkeeper of the Spread Eagle in Thame, Berkshire, and published his autobiography: An Innkeeper's Diary (London: Chatto & Windus, 1931).[133] During his idiosyncratic occupancy many famous people came to stay, such as H. G. Wells. United States president George W. Bush fulfilled his lifetime ambition of visiting a 'genuine British pub' during his November 2003 state visit to the UK when he had lunch and a pint of non-alcoholic lager (Bush being a teetotaler) with British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the Dun Cow pub in Sedgefield, County Durham in Blair's home constituency.[134] There were approximately 53,500 public houses in 2009 in the United Kingdom.[135] This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller villages no longer have a local pub.[136] London See also: List of real London pubs in literature Many of London's pubs are known to have been used by famous people, but in some cases, such as the association between Samuel Johnson and Ye Olde Cheshire Cheese, this is speculative, based on little more than the fact that the person is known to have lived nearby. However, Charles Dickens is known to have visited the Cheshire Cheese, the Prospect of Whitby, Ye Olde co*ck Tavern and many others. Samuel Pepys is also associated with the Prospect of Whitby and the co*ck Tavern. The Fitzroy Tavern[137] is a pub situated at 16 Charlotte Street in the Fitzrovia district, to which it gives its name. It became famous (or according to others, infamous) during a period spanning the 1920s to the mid-1950s as a meeting place for many of London's artists, intellectuals and bohemians such as Dylan Thomas, Augustus John, and George Orwell. Several establishments in Soho, London, have associations with well-known, post-war literary and artistic figures, including the Pillars of Hercules, The Colony Room and the Coach and Horses. The Canonbury Tavern, Canonbury, was the prototype for Orwell's ideal English pub, The Moon Under Water. The Red Lion in Whitehall is close to the Houses of Parliament and is frequented by Members of Parliament (MPs) and political journalists. The Red Lion in Whitehall is close to the Palace of Westminster and is consequently used by political journalists and Members of Parliament (MPs). The pub is equipped with a Division bell that summons MPs back to the chamber when they are required to take part in a vote.[138] The Punch Bowl, Mayfair was at one time jointly owned by Madonna and Guy Ritchie.[139] The Coleherne public house in Earls Court was a well-known gay pub from the 1950s. It attracted many well-known patrons, such as Freddie Mercury, Kenny Everett and Rudolph Nureyev. It was used by the serial-killer Colin Ireland to pick up victims. Jack Straw's Castle was a pub named after Jack Straw, one of the three leaders of Peasants' Revolt, the pub was active since 14th century until its destruction by The Blitz during the Second World War. In 1966 The Blind Beggar in Whitechapel became infamous as the scene of a murder committed by gangster Ronnie Kray.[140] The Ten Bells is associated with several of the victims of Jack the Ripper. In 1955, Ruth Ellis, the last woman executed in the United Kingdom, shot David Blakely as he emerged from The Magdala in South Hill Park, Hampstead,[141] the bullet holes can still be seen in the walls outside. It is said that Vladimir Lenin and a young Joseph Stalin met in the Crown and Anchor pub (now known as The Crown Tavern) on Clerkenwell Green when the latter was visiting London in 1903.[142] The Angel, Islington was formerly a coaching inn, the first on the Great North Road, the main route northwards out of London, where Thomas Paine is believed to have written much of The Rights of Man. It was mentioned by Charles Dickens, became a Lyons Corner House, and is now a Co-operative Bank. Oxford and Cambridge The Eagle and Child and the Lamb and Flag, Oxford, were regular meeting places of the Inklings, a writers' group which included J. R. R. Tolkien and C. S. Lewis. The Eagle in Cambridge is where Francis Crick interrupted patrons' lunchtime on 28 February 1953 to announce that he and James Watson had "discovered the secret of life" after they had come up with their proposal for the structure of DNA.[143] The anecdote is related in Watson's book The Double Helix.[144] and commemorated with a blue plaque on the outside wall. Outside Great Britain See also: Irish pub and Australian pub U Medvídků, one of the oldest pubs in Europe Although "British" pubs found outside of Britain and its former colonies are often themed bars owing little to the original British pub, a number of "true" pubs may be found around the world. Pub Pikilinna, an Irish-style public house in the Tammela district of the city of Tampere, Finland. In Scandinavia, especially Denmark, a number of pubs have opened which eschew "theming", and which instead focus on the business of providing carefully conditioned beer, often independent of any particular brewery or chain, in an environment which would not be unfamiliar to a British pub-goer. Some import British cask ale, rather than beer in kegs, to provide the full British real ale experience to their customers. This newly established Danish interest in British cask beer and the British pub tradition is reflected by the fact that some 56 British cask beers were available at the 2008 European Beer Festival in Copenhagen, which was attended by more than 20,000 people. In Ireland, pubs are known for their atmosphere or "craic".[145] In Irish, a pub is referred to as teach tábhairne ("tavernhouse") or teach óil ("drinkinghouse"). Live music, either sessions of traditional Irish music or varieties of modern popular music, is frequently featured in the pubs of Ireland. Pubs in Northern Ireland are largely identical to their counterparts in the Republic of Ireland except for the lack of spirit grocers. A side effect of "The Troubles" was that the lack of a tourist industry meant that a higher proportion of traditional bars have survived the wholesale refitting of Irish pub interiors in the "English style" in the 1950s and 1960s. New Zealand sports a number of Irish pubs.[146] Pubs have a long history in Canada, with some still operating after 200 years, like the Olde Angel Inn in Niagara-on-the-Lake. A fake "English looking" pub trend started in the 1990s, built into existing storefronts, often run by corporate pub firms. Most universities in Canada have campus pubs which are central to student life, serving food and drink as well as hosting social events. Often these pubs are run by the student's union and at some universities, a budget is reserved for course pub nights. The gastropub concept has caught on, as traditional British influences are to be found in many Canadian dishes. Aside from pubs, the term bar can refer to themed drinking establishments, sports bars, or co*cktail bars, or to the physical counter in a pub. Tavern was previously a popular term, though it has become somewhat antiquated. In South Africa pubs and taverns have had a particularly long and notable presence in the city of Cape Town. Prior to the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 Cape Town was a major trading port between Europe and Asia and hosted a very large number of drinking establishments earning the city the moniker Tavern of the Seas.[147][148] The oldest currently operating pub in South Africa, and one of the last drinking establishments left from the Tavern of the Seas era, is the Perseverance Tavern opened in 1808.[149] In fiction See also: List of fictional bars and pubs The fictitious Queen Victoria pub, EastEnders, London Pubs are a common setting for fictional works, including novels, stories, films, video games, and other works. In many cases, authors and other creators develop imaginary pubs for their works, some of which have become notable fictional places. Notable fictional pubs include The Admiral Benbow Inn in the Treasure Island pirate story, The Garrison in the 1920s crime TV drama Peaky Blinders, The Golden Perch in the high fantasy novel The Lord of the Rings, The Leaky Cauldron and The Hog's Head in the Harry Potter fantasy series, Moe's Tavern, a working-class venue in The Simpsons, and The Oak and Crosier in The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion video game. The major soap operas on British television each feature a fictional pub, and these pubs have become household names in Britain.[150] The Rovers Return is the pub in Coronation Street, the British soap broadcast on ITV. The Queen Vic (short for the Queen Victoria) is the pub in EastEnders, the major soap on BBC One and the Woolpack in ITV's Emmerdale. The sets of each of the three major television soap operas have been visited by some of the members of the royal family, including Queen Elizabeth II. The centrepiece of each visit was a trip into the Rovers,[151] the Queen Vic,[152] or the Woolpack to be offered a drink. The Bull in the BBC Radio 4 soap opera The Archers is an important meeting point. See also Tavern Bar Flat-roofed pub Campaign for Real Ale Pub crawl SpåraKoff Public houses in Ireland Public houses in Australia List of award-winning pubs in London List of microbreweries List of public house topics List of public houses in Australia Alcohol licensing laws of the United Kingdom Alcohol licensing laws of Ireland References "Origins of the English pub" (PDF). Stephen Cooper. GLA Economics, Closing time: London's public houses, 2017 "History of the pub". Beer and Pub Association. Archived from the original on 13 July 2010. "Great British Pub". Archived from the original on 14 February 2012. "Public House". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cronin, Michael; O'Connor, Barbara (2003). Barbara O'Connor (ed.). Irish Tourism: image, culture, and identity. Tourism and Cultural Change. 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"How-did-historic-alehouses-taverns-and-inns-evolve-into-the-pubs-we-see-today". Geoffrey K. Brandwood; Andrew Davison; Michael Slaughter (2004). Licensed to sell: the history and heritage of the public house. English Heritage. p. 93. ISBN 1-85074-906-X. Retrieved 15 October 2010. Paul Jennings (5 February 2016). A History of Drink and the English, 1500–2000. Routledge. p. 80. ISBN 9781317209171. Geoff Brandwood. "The vanishing faces of the traditional pub" (PDF). Nick Collins (28 January 2011). "The rise and fall of the British pub". The Daily Telegraph. "The co*ck at Broom – 01767 314411 One of England's Real Heritage Pubs". theco* Archived from the original on 16 May 2015. Evans, David G., et al. (1975) The Manchester Pub Guide, Manchester and Salford City Centres. Manchester: Manchester Pub Surveys; pp. 1–4 "Time Gentlemen Please!". Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 15 October 2010. Stuart Cole (2007). West from Paddington. Etica Press Ltd. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-905633-05-0. Retrieved 15 October 2010. "In the Pub". CAMRA. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 26 June 2009. "The Supply of Beer". Archived from the original on 10 April 2004. Retrieved 9 March 2015. "Pubs 'face mass closure threat'". BBC. 27 January 2009. Retrieved 1 May 2015. Farley, David (24 May 2009). "New York Develops a Taste for Gastropubs". The Washington Post. Norrington-Davies, Tom (24 November 2005). "Is the gastropub making a meal of it?". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 10 July 2008.[dead link] "American gastropub: what's in a name?". Art Culinaire. via Spring 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved 23 July 2008. Norrington-Davies, Tom (24 November 2005). "Is the gastropub making a meal of it? – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2009. "Gastropub RIP". The Good Food Guide. 4 September 2011. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Pete Brown (18 August 2016). The Pub: A Cultural Institution. Jacqui Small LLP. p. 130. ISBN 9781911127017. House of Commons: Business, Innovation and Skills Committee (25 March 2010). Pub companies: follow-up, Government response to the Committee's fifth report of session 2009–10. The Stationery Office. p. 7. ISBN 9780215545510. The more recent developments of the country pub Archived 20 November 2008 at the Wayback Machine "The Country Pub". Southern Life (UK). Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Gutzke, David W (2005). "Improved Pubs and Road Houses: Rivals for Public Affection in Interwar England". The Brewery History Society. Retrieved 3 April 2016. Jamie Hailstone (11 June 2015). "Small is beautiful – the quiet rise of the micropub". Morning Advertiser. Hawkes, Will (17 February 2011). "A local pub for local people: 'Micropubs' are catching on". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2012. "Micropub Assoc – The Butcher's Arms". Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Community fixers? The mighty rise of the micropub". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. "Sainsbury's Launches First 'NoLo' Pub". 25 July 2019. Farrah, Sophie (17 July 2019). "The new trend NOLO comes to Hampton". Essential Surrey & SW London. "Shaman is a low-alcohol bar in London for healthy hedonism". 13 March 2020. "QI: some quite interesting facts about pubs". The Telegraph. 10 December 2016. Archived from the original on 12 April 2018. Video of artist Michael Farrar-Bell producing inn signs from British Pathe News "The History Press | A history of British pub names". Retrieved 27 August 2019. "Culture UK – Pub and Inn Signs". Archived from the original on 8 February 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012. "The Inn Crowd". The Telegraph. 30 September 2016. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 27 August 2019. "Royal George, Cottingham". Retrieved 27 August 2019. Brewer, E. Cobham (1989) Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable; 14th ed., by Ivor H. Evans. London: Cassell; p. 482 where it is thought unlikely, and two other suggestions are given Brewer, E. Cobham (1898). "Dictionary of Phrase and Fable". Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2008. Dictionary of Pub Names – Google Books. 10 September 2006. ISBN 978-1-84022-266-1. Retrieved 31 August 2009. James Masters. "The History of Darts and other Useful Information". Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Skittles, Nine Pins – Online guide". Archived from the original on 2 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Dominoes – Online Guide". Archived from the original on 14 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters (21 February 1936). "Bar Billiards – Online Guide". Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Aunt Sally – The Online Guide". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Nine Mens Morris, Mill – Online guide". Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Ringing the Bull – History and information". Archived from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "History of Pool and Carom Billiards – Online Guide". Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Billiards and Snooker – Online guide". Archived from the original on 2 July 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Shove Ha'penny – Online Guide". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. James Masters. "Bat and Ball Games – Online Guide". Archived from the original on 3 March 2009. Retrieved 26 June 2009. "Nostalgia: Latest Nostalgia pieces from Gazette Live". Archived from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 9 March 2015. Barry, Tina (29 April 2005). "Better Pub Grub". The Brooklyn Paper. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2013. "Pub grub gets out of pickle". The Mirror. 27 June 2005. Archived from the original on 25 May 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2013. "CAMRA National Inventory". 19 February 2012. Archived from the original on 19 February 2012. Retrieved 9 March 2015. Trinder-Widdess, Zoe. "National Trust Website". Archived from the original on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 26 June 2009. Evans, Jeff (2004) The Book of Beer Knowledge: essential wisdom for the discerning drinker. St Albans: CAMRA Books ISBN 1-85249-198-1 "The Old Forge". The Old Forge. Archived from the original on 14 August 2010. Retrieved 7 July 2010. John White of White Beer Travels. "Signal Box Inn". Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012. Historic England. "Royal Victoria Pavilion (1336672)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 7 December 2019. "The Legend of Ye Olde Trip To Jerusalem". Ye Olde Trip to Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 16 October 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2010. "Domeday book". Retrieved 18 April 2019.[permanent dead link] "Oldest Inn in Britain". Archived from the original on 19 August 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009. Peter Sargent. "Adam and Eve pub Bishopgate, Norwich". Eastern Daily Press. Archived from the original on 19 October 2010. Maya Wolfe-Robinson (16 July 2019). "Pub with longest name in UK reopens next to pub with shortest". The Guardian. Sam Yarwood (15 July 2019). "Pub with longest name in the country reopens in Tameside – two doors down from the pub with the shortest – Manchester Evening News". Manchester Evening News. "Blue Plaque – The Rifleman Inn". Tameside Metropolitan Borough. Retrieved 16 July 2019. Johnson, Georgia-Rose (31 July 2019). "The average price of a pint in 150+ countries | interactive world map". Finder UK. Retrieved 14 October 2019. "25th July 2018". British Beer and Pub Association. Retrieved 14 October 2019. Johnson, Jamie (24 February 2019). "Pubs are closing down at a rate of one every 12 hours, new figures show". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 14 October 2019. British Beer and Pub Association – Statistics, "UK Beer Market". Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014. "4000 pubs stuck in the 1980s". 29 August 2013. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. "Last orders for struggling Welsh pubs". BBC. 28 August 2010. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. "Why are British pubs closing down? (video)". BBC. 6 March 2015. Archived from the original on 22 May 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. "Why London's pubs are disappearing". The Economist. 24 August 2017. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017. Why London’s pubs are disappearing "Pub companies, pub tenants & pub closures: recent developments – Commons Library Standard Note". Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015. "The Lost Pubs Project". Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016. "Pub numbers fall to lowest on record". BBC News. 4 July 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2022. Shelley, Henry C. (Henry Charles). "Inns and Taverns of Old London". Archived from the original on 17 February 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2009. Highwaymen, Historic UK, archived from the original on 5 February 2012, retrieved 13 May 2012 Paschke, Jean (March 2007). "The Cornwall of Daphne du Maurier". British Heritage Society. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016. My Three Inns, 1949, includes those he kept in Ascot and Market Harborough. There are more recent editions of the diary. Milmo, Cahal (22 November 2003). "An 'authentic' day out: fish and chips at the Dun Cow, for a very reasonable £1m – This Britain, UK". The Independent. London. Retrieved 21 July 2009.[dead link] "British Beer and Pub Association". Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2009. Alleyne, Richard (10 April 2008). "Low sales force four village pubs to close a day – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2 December 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2009. Fitzroy Tavern, Fitzrovia, London W1T 2NA Archived 30 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Lloyd-Jones, Nick (4 May 2005). "Westminster: For whom the division bell tolls". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 2 June 2013. Gammell, Caroline & Singh, Anita (20 November 2009). "Madonna and Guy Ritchie reach divorce settlement". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 5 May 2013. Retrieved 17 December 2009. "BBC ON THIS DAY | 1969: Kray twins guilty of McVitie murder". BBC News. 4 March 1976. Archived from the original on 27 December 2007. Retrieved 9 March 2015. "The Magdala" Archived 31 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine (Retrieved 13 February 2010) Lenin and Stalin meeting, archived from the original on 9 March 2012, retrieved 13 May 2012 Regis, Ed (2009) What Is Life?: investigating the nature of life in the age of synthetic biology. Oxford: Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-538341-9; p. 52 Noble, Ivan (27 February 2003). "'Secret of life' discovery turns 50". BBC. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. "What's the Craic?". Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 26 June 2009. "Consulate General of Ireland: Bars and pubs". Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2015. ""Tavern of the Seas"? The Cape of Good Hope as an oceanic crossroads during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries". Retrieved 3 March 2021. Samuelson, Meg (2 November 2014). "(Un)Lawful Subjects of Company". Interventions. 16 (6): 795–817. doi:10.1080/1369801X.2014.937349. ISSN 1369-801X. S2CID 161911784. Williams, Murray. "Oldest pub in SA 'The Percy' shuts up shop as lockdown takes its toll". News24. Retrieved 29 July 2020. Soap box or soft soap? audience attitudes to the British soap opera Archived 3 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine; by Andrea Millwood Hargrave with Lucy Gatfield, May 2002, Broadcasting Standards Commission; p. 20. Retrieved 21 July 2009. Hardman, Robert (9 December 2000). "Coronation treat for Prince at the Rovers – Telegraph". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2009. "EastEnders queens resolve royal issue". BBC News. London. 23 November 2001. Retrieved 21 July 2009. Bibliography Christy, Miller (1887). "Trade Signs of Essex: a popular account of the origin and meanings of the public house and other signs now or formerly found in the county of Essex". Chelmsford: Edmund Durrant & Co. Archived from the original on 20 February 2012. Retrieved 13 March 2009. Cornell, Martyn (2003). Beer: the story of the pint. London: Headline. ISBN 978-0-7553-1165-1. Haydon, Peter (2001). Beer and Britannia: an inebriated history of Britain. Stroud: Sutton. ISBN 978-0-7509-2748-2. Jackson, Michael & Smyth, Frank (1976). The English Pub. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-216210-5. A history of the Brewery Artists Inn Sign studio Further reading Simon Kelner (7 August 2019). "Pubs can be bizarre and peculiar, but they're worth saving as a focal point of a community". i News. Burke, Thomas (1927). The Book of the Inn: being two hundred pictures of the English inn from the earliest times to the coming of the railway hotel; selected and edited by Thomas Burke. London: Constable. Burke, Thomas (1930). The English Inn. (English Heritage.) London: Herbert Jenkins. Burke, Thomas (1947). The English Inn (Revised ed.). (The Country Books.) London: Herbert Jenkins. Clark, Peter (1983). The English Alehouse: a social history, 1200–1830. Harlow: Longman. ISBN 0-582-50835-5. Clark, Peter (1978). "The Alehouse and the Alternative Society", in: Puritans and Revolutionaries: essays in seventeenth-century history presented to Christopher Hill; ed. D. H. Pennington & Keith Thomas. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978; pp. 47–72. Douch, H. L. (1966). Old Cornish Inns and their place in the social history of the County. Truro: D. Bradford Barton. Everitt, Alan. "The English Urban Inn 1560–1760." Perspectives in English urban history (Palgrave Macmillan UK, 1973) pp. 91–137. (The Oxford Companion to Local and Family History (ed. David Hey), 1996, describes this as "the starting point for modern studies [of inns]"; Everitt described most of the previous literature on the topic as "a wretched farrago of romantic legends, facetious humour and irritating errors".) Gutzke, David W. Pubs and Progressives: Reinventing the Public House in England, 1896–1960(Northern Illinois University Press, 2006). Hackwood, Frederick W. (1910). Inns, Ales and Drinking Customs of Old England. London: T. Fisher Unwin. Reissued: London: Bracken Books, 1985. ISBN 0-946495-25-4. Hailwood, Mark. Alehouses and Good Fellowship in Early Modern England (Boydell & Brewer Ltd, 2014). Jennings, Paul. A History of Drink and the English, 1500–2000 (Routledge, 2016). Jennings, Paul. "Liquor Licensing and the Local Historian: The Victorian Public House." Local Historian 41 (2011): 121–137. Martin, John (1993). Stanley Chew's Pub Signs: a celebration of the art and heritage of British pub signs. Worcester: John Martin. ISBN 1-85421-225-7. Monson-Fitzjohn, G. J. (1926) Quaint Signs of Olde Inns. London: Herbert Jenkins (reissued by Senate, London, 1994 ISBN 1-85958-028-9). Mutch, Alistair. "Improving the public house in Britain, 1920–40: Sir Sydney Nevile and 'social work'." Business history 52.4 (2010): 517–535. Nicholls, James. "Alcohol licensing in Scotland: a historical overview." Addiction 107.8 (2012): 1397–1403. Richardson, A. E. (1934). The Old Inns of England. London: B. T. Batsford. External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pubs. Look up pub in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Pubs at Curlie Lost Pubs Project – archive of closed English pubs "Public House" . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. vte Drinking establishments Alcohol-free barBar (saloon)Beer gardenBeer hallBiker barBrewpubCantinaCider houseCigar barCoffeehouseDive barFern barGay BarHonky tonkIce barIzakayaJuice barJuke jointJumakList of public house topicsMeyhaneMilitary officers' clubNightclubOuzeriPubPulqueriaRatskellerShebeen(Western) saloonSaloon (bar)TeahouseTavernTiki barToddy shopWine bar By country AustraliaOttoman EmpireIrelandUnited KingdomNorth America See also Drinking cultureIndex of drinking establishment-related articlesList of bars vte Bartending Occupations BarbackBartenderBeer sommelierco*cktail waitressSommelierBouncer Robert gold bartender.jpg Alcoholic beverages BeerCiderLiquorWine Non-alcoholic mixers BittersFruit juiceGrenadineSoft drinkSugar syrupTomato juice Equipment Alcoholic spirits measureBar spoonBeer engineBeer towerBeverage coasterBlenderChinoisco*cktail shakerco*cktail strainerCorkscrewDrinkwareGlass rimmerIce cubeJiggerJuicerMargarita 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A bar, also known as a saloon, a tavern or tippling house, or sometimes as a pub or club, is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, co*cktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks. Bars often also sell snack foods, such as crisps or peanuts, for consumption on their premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" refers to the countertop where drinks are prepared and served, and by extension to the overall premises. The term derives from the metal or wooden bar (barrier) that is often located along the length of the "bar".[1] Over many years, heights of bars were lowered, and high stools added, and the brass bar remains today. Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are often referred to as "music bars", "live venues", or "nightclubs". Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars[2] to elegant places of entertainment, often accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars operate a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink-purchase requirement during their peak hours. Bars may have bouncers to ensure that patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, and to collect cover charges. Such bars often feature entertainment, which may be a live band, vocalist, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may sit or stand at the counter and be served by a bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two. The "back bar" is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind the counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass, mirrors, and lights. History A Depression-era bar in Melrose, Louisiana There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were very important to the leisure time of the working class.[3] Today, even when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is normally called "the bar". The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland, Norway, and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", and "blind tigers". Legal restrictions Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink.[citation needed] In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron who is already intoxicated. Cities and towns usually have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers. Some bars may have a license to serve beer and wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must also order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons who they serve (this liability may arise in cases of driving under the influence which cause injuries or deaths). Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them. Types Gunpowder Cellar of Tartu, a former 18th-century gunpowder cellar and current beer restaurant in Tartu, Estonia SpåraKoff, the so-called "pub tram", departing from Railway Square in Helsinki, Finland Drinking at the bar, Raceland, Louisiana, September 1938 Example of a typical home bar in New York City, USA A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu, lighting, and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over who patronizes their establishment. Thus, a bar originally intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an increasingly heterosexual clientele, or a blues bar may become a biker bar if most its patrons are bikers. Bars can also be an integral part of larger venues. For example, hotels, casinos and nightclubs are usually home to one or several bars. A co*cktail lounge is an upscale bar that is typically located within a hotel, restaurant or airport. A full bar serves liquor, co*cktails, wine, and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on beer or liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them. Some wine bars also serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer, particularly craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub has an on-site brewery and serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an upscale or preppy (or yuppie) bar. A music bar is a bar that presents live music as an attraction, such as a piano bar. A dive bar, often referred to simply as a "dive", is a very informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable. A non-alcoholic bar is a bar that does not serve alcoholic beverages. A strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is also a restaurant. Some persons may designate either a room or an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars that could be suited as businesses. Entertainment Many sports bars sell food such as chicken wings. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Arcade bars, in which the bar have video games on cabinets and consoles Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. Typically, if a venue has a large dance floor, focuses primarily on dancing rather than seated drinking, and hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars, specializing in live music (i.e. concerts). Piano bars are one example. Drag bars, which specialize in drag performances as entertainment Salsa bars, where patrons dance to Latin salsa music Sports bars, which are furnished with sports-related memorabilia and theming, and typically contain a large number of televisions used to broadcast major sporting events for their patrons. A tiki bar offers a fully immersive and entertaining environment, including tropical co*cktails, tiki carvings, exotica music, a dark, windowless space with light fixtures lending a soft glow, and nautical brick-a-brac that hints at romantic travels to exotic lands. Topless bars, where topless female employees dance or serve drinks. In India, these bars are called dance bars, which is distinct from the type of "dance bar" discussed above. Patrons A two-story building with brick on the first floor, with two arched doorways, and gray stucco on the second floor, off of which hang numerous rainbow flags. The Stonewall Inn, a gay bar on Christopher Street in Greenwich Village, Manhattan, is a designated U.S. National Historic Landmark and National Monument as the site of the June 1969 Stonewall riots and the cradle of the modern gay-rights movement.[4][5][6] Bars can categorized by the kind of patrons who frequent them: Bicycle messenger bars, where bike messengers congregate; these are found only in cities with large bike messenger communities Biker bars, which are bars frequented by motorcycle enthusiasts and (in some regions) motorcycle club members. Cop bars, where off-duty law enforcement agents gather. College bars, usually located in or near universities, where most of the patrons are students Gay bars, where gay men or women dance and socialize Hipster bars, where hipsters are the patrons of this bar Lesbian bars Neighborhood bars, a bar that most of the patrons know each other; it is generally close to home and is frequented regularly "Old man" bars, whose clientele are mainly long-time male patrons who know each other well; since most patrons are retired, they often begin drinking much earlier in the day, consume inexpensive beer/whisky and may spend much of the day chatting, reading the newspaper, and watching television Sailor bars, usually located in waterfront areas near commercial docks or naval bases Singles bars where (mostly) unmarried people of both sexes can meet and socialize Sports bars, where sports fans gather to cheer on their favorite teams with other like-minded fans. Sports bars generally have a dozen or more televisions, in order to display simultaneous games or sports Women's bars Bar (counter) A row of liquor bottles behind a bar Liquor and wine bottles displayed in a cabinet behind a bar in Baden, Austria The counter at which drinks are served by a bartender is called "the bar". This term is applied, as a synecdoche, to drinking establishments called "bars". This counter typically stores a variety of beers, wines, liquors, and non-alcoholic ingredients, and is organized to facilitate the bartender's work. Counters for serving other types of food and drink may also be called bars. Examples of this usage of the word include snack bars, sushi bars, juice bars, salad bars, dairy bars, and ice cream sundae bars. Locations Australia In Australia, the major form of licensed commercial alcohol outlet from the colonial period to the present was the pub, a local variant of the English original. Until the 1970s, Australian pubs were traditionally organised into gender-segregated drinking areas—the "public bar" was only open to men, while the "lounge bar" or "saloon bar" served both men and women (i.e. mixed drinking). This distinction was gradually eliminated as anti-discrimination legislation and women's rights activism broke down the concept of a public drinking area accessible to only men. Where two bars still exist in the one establishment, one (that derived from the "public bar") will be more downmarket while the other (deriving from the "lounge bar") will be more upmarket. Over time, with the introduction of gaming machines into hotels, many "lounge bars" have or are being converted into gaming rooms. Beginning in the mid-1950s, the formerly strict state liquor licensing laws were progressively relaxed and reformed, with the result that pub trading hours were extended. This was in part to eliminate the social problems associated with early closing times—notably the infamous "six o'clock swill"—and the thriving trade in "sly grog" (illicit alcohol sales). More licensed liquor outlets began to appear, including retail "bottle shops" (over-the-counter bottle sales were previously only available at pubs and were strictly controlled). Particularly in Sydney, a new class of licensed premises, the wine bar, appeared; there alcohol could be served on the proviso that it was provided in tandem with a meal. These venues became very popular in the late 1960s and early 1970s and many offered free entertainment, becoming an important facet of the Sydney music scene in that period. In the major Australian cities today there is a large and diverse bar scene with a range of ambiences, modes and styles catering for every echelon of cosmopolitan society. Canada Public drinking began with the establishment of colonial taverns in both the U.S and Canada. While the term changed to Public house especially in the U.K., the term Tavern continued to be used instead of Pub in both the U.S and Canada. Public drinking establishments were banned by the Prohibition of alcohol, which was (and is) a provincial jurisdiction. Prohibition was repealed, province by province in the 1920s. There was not a universal right to consume alcohol, and only males of legal age were permitted to do so. "Beer parlours" were common in the wake of prohibition, with local laws often not permitting entertainment (such as the playing of games or music) in these establishments, which were set aside for the purpose solely of consuming alcohol. Since the end of the Second World War, and exposure by roughly one million Canadians to the public house traditions common in the UK by servicemen and women serving there, those traditions became more common in Canada. These traditions include the drinking of dark ales and stouts, the "pub" as a social gathering place for both sexes, and the playing of games (such as darts, snooker, or pool). The tavern became extremely popular during the 1960s and 1970s, especially for working-class people. Canadian taverns, which can still be found in remote regions of Northern Canada, have long tables with benches lining the sides. Patrons in these taverns often order beer in large quart bottles and drink inexpensive "bar brand" Canadian rye whisky. In some provinces, taverns used to have separate entrances for men and women. Even in a large city like Toronto, separate entrances existed into the early 1970s. Canada has adopted some of the newer U.S. bar traditions (such as the "sports bar") of the last decades. As a result, the term "bar" has come to be differentiated from the term "pub", in that bars are usually 'themed' and sometimes have a dance floor. Bars with dance floors are usually relegated to small or Suburban communities. In larger cities bars with large dance floors are usually referred to as clubs and are strictly for dancing, Establishments that call themselves pubs are often much more similar to a British pub in style. Before the 1980s, most "bars" were referred to simply as "tavern". Often, bars and pubs in Canada will cater to supporters of a local sporting team, usually a hockey team. There is a difference between the sports bar and the pub; sports bars focus on TV screens showing games and showcasing uniforms, equipment, etc. Pubs will generally also show games but do not exclusively focus on them. The Tavern was popular until the early 1980s, when American-style bars, as we know them today became popular. In the 1990s imitation British- and Irish-style pubs become popular and adopted names like "The Fox and Fiddle" and "The Queen and Beaver" reflect naming trends in Britain. Tavern or pub-style mixed food and drink establishments are generally more common than bars in Canada, although both can be found. Legal restrictions on bars are set by the Canadian provinces and territories, which has led to a great deal of variety. While some provinces have been very restrictive with their bar regulation, setting strict closing times and banning the removal of alcohol from the premises, other provinces have been more liberal. Closing times generally run from 2:00 to 4:00 a.m. In Nova Scotia, particularly in Halifax, there was, until the 1980s, a very distinct system of gender-based laws that were in effect for decades. Taverns, bars, halls, and other classifications differentiated whether it was exclusively for men or women, men with invited women, vice versa, or mixed. After this fell by the wayside, there was the issue of water closets. This led to many taverns adding on "powder rooms"; sometimes they were constructed later, or used parts of kitchens or upstairs halls if plumbing allowed. This was also true of conversions in former "sitting rooms", for men's facilities. Italy The bar in the coach terminal at Udine, Italy In Italy, a "bar" is a place more similar to a café, where people go during the morning or the afternoon, usually to drink a coffee, a cappuccino, or a hot chocolate and eat some kind of snack such as sandwiches (panini or tramezzini) or pastries. However, any kind of alcoholic beverages are served. Opening hours vary: some establishments are open very early in the morning and close relatively early in the evening; others, especially if next to a theater or a cinema, may be open until late at night. Many larger bars are also restaurants and disco clubs. Many Italian bars have introduced a so-called "aperitivo" time in the evening, in which everyone who purchases an alcoholic drink then has free access to a usually abundant buffet of cold dishes such as pasta salads, vegetables, and various appetizers. Poland The oldest bar serving pasztecik szczeciński in Szczecin In modern Polish, in most cases a bar would be referred to as pub (plural puby), a loan from English. Polish puby serve various kinds of alcoholic drinks as well as other beverages and simple snacks such as crisps, peanuts or pretzel sticks. Most establishments feature loud music and some have frequent live performances. While Polish word bar can be also applied to this kind of establishment, it is often used to describe any kind of inexpensive restaurant, and therefore can be translated as diner or cafeteria. Both in bary and in puby, the counter at which one orders is called bar, itself being another obvious loanword from English. Bar mleczny (literally 'milk bar') is a kind of inexpensive self-service restaurant serving wide range of dishes, with simple interior design, usually opened during breakfast and lunch hours. It is very similar to Russian столовая in both menu and decor. It can be also compared to what is called greasy spoon in English-speaking countries. Bary mleczne rarely serve alcoholic beverages. The term bar szybkiej obsługi (lit. 'quick service restaurant') also refers to eating - not drinking - establishments. It is being gradually replaced by the English term fast food. Another name, bar samoobsługowy may be applied for any kind of self-service restaurant. Some kinds of Polish bar serve only one type of meal. An example are restaurants serving pasztecik szczeciński, a traditional specialty of the city of Szczecin. It can be consumed at the table or take-out. Spain Bars are common in Spain and form an important part in Spanish culture. In Spain, it is common for a town to have many bars and even to have several lined up on the same street. Most bars have a section of the street or plaza outside with tables and chairs with parasols if the weather allows it. Spanish bars are also known for serving a wide range of sandwiches (bocadillos), as well as snacks called tapas or pinchos. Tapas and pinchos may be offered to customers in two ways, either complementary to order a drink or in some cases there are charged independently, either case this is usually clearly indicated to bar customers by display of wall information, on menus and price lists. The anti-smoking law has entered in effect January 1, 2011 and since that date it is prohibited to smoke in bars and restaurants as well as all other indoor areas, closed commercial and state owned facilities are now smoke-free areas. Spain is the country with the highest ratio of bars/population with almost six bars per thousand inhabitants, three times UK's ratio and four times Germany's. The meaning of the word 'bar' in Spain, however, does not have the negative connotation inherent in the same word in many other languages. For Spanish people a bar is essentially a meeting place, and not necessarily a place to engage in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. As a result, children are normally allowed into bars, and it is common to see families in bars during week-ends of the end of the day. In small towns, the 'bar' may constitute the very center of social life, and it is customary that, after social events, people go to bars, including seniors and children alike. United Kingdom In the UK, bars are either areas that serve alcoholic drinks within establishments such as hotels, restaurants, universities, or are a particular type of establishment which serves alcoholic drinks such as wine bars, "style bars", private membership only bars. However, the main type of establishment selling alcohol for consumption on the premises is the pub. Some bars are similar to nightclubs in that they feature loud music, subdued lighting, or operate a dress code and admissions policy, with inner city bars generally having door staff at the entrance. 'Bar' also designates a separate drinking area within a pub. Traditionally many pubs had two or more bars – very often the public bar or tap room and the saloon bar or lounge, where the decor was better and prices were sometimes higher. The designations of the bars varied regionally. In the last two decades, many pub interiors have been opened up into single spaces, which some people regret as it loses the flexibility, intimacy, and traditional feel of a multi-roomed public house. One of the last dive bars in London was underneath the Kings Head Pub in Gerrard Street, Soho. United States The bar of the Club Moderne in Anaconda, Montana In the United States, legal distinctions often exist between restaurants and bars, and even between types of bars. These distinctions vary from state to state, and even among municipalities. Beer bars (sometimes called taverns or pubs) are legally restricted to selling only beer, and possibly wine or cider. Liquor bars, also simply called bars, also sell hard liquor. Bars are sometimes exempt from smoking bans that restaurants are subject to, even if those restaurants have liquor licenses. The distinction between a restaurant that serves liquor and a bar is usually made by the percentage of revenue earned from selling liquor, although increasingly, smoking bans include bars as well. A bar named "Bar" in New Haven, Connecticut In most places, bars are prohibited from selling alcoholic beverages to go, and this makes them clearly different from liquor stores. Some brewpubs and wineries can serve alcohol to go, but under the rules applied to a liquor store. In some areas, such as New Orleans and parts of Las Vegas and Savannah, Georgia, open containers of alcohol may be prepared to go. This kind of restriction is usually dependent on an open container law. In Pennsylvania and Ohio, bars may sell six-packs of beer "to-go" in original (sealed) containers by obtaining a take-out license. New Jersey permits all forms of packaged goods to be sold at bars, and permits packaged beer and wine to be sold at any time on-premises sales of alcoholic beverages are allowed. Ells & Laney Saloon-Restaurant, Macon, Georgia, circa 1876 During the 19th century, drinking establishments were called saloons. In the American Old West the most popular establishment in town was usually the Western saloon. Many of these Western saloons survive, though their services and features have changed with the times. Newer establishments have sometimes been built in Western saloon style for a nostalgic effect. In American cities there were also numerous saloons, which allowed only male patrons and were usually owned by one of the major breweries. Drunkenness, fights, and alcoholism made the saloon into a powerful symbol of all that was wrong with alcohol.[7] Saloons were the primary target of the Temperance movement, and the Anti-Saloon League, founded in 1892, was the most powerful lobby in favor of Prohibition. When Prohibition was repealed, President Franklin D. Roosevelt asked the states not to permit the return of saloons.[8] Many Irish- or British-themed "pubs" exist throughout United States and Canada and in some continental European countries. As of May, 2014, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania had the most bars per capita in the United States.[9] Former Yugoslavia Main article: Coffee culture in former Yugoslavia In Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia, modern bars overlap with coffeehouses and larger ones are sometimes also nightclubs. Since the 1980s, they have become similar in social function to the bars of Italy, Spain and Greece, as meeting places for people in a city. Gallery Interior of Seth Kinman's Table Bluff Hotel and Saloon in Table Bluff, California, 1889 Interior of Seth Kinman's Table Bluff Hotel and Saloon in Table Bluff, California, 1889 Tourists sit outside a bar in Chiang Mai, Thailand Tourists sit outside a bar in Chiang Mai, Thailand A retro bar in Berlin, Germany A retro bar in Berlin, Germany The original Drifter's Reef bar at Wake Island The original Drifter's Reef bar at Wake Island A bar in Bristol, England A bar in Bristol, England St. Urho's Pub in Helsinki, Finland St. Urho's Pub in Helsinki, Finland Tulppion Tisko in Tulppio, Lapland, Finland Tulppion Tisko in Tulppio, Lapland, Finland A bartender at work in a pub in Jerusalem A bartender at work in a pub in Jerusalem A bar in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia A bar in Dire Dawa, Ethiopia Henry Miller's Inn, Toledo, Ohio, 1909 Henry Miller's Inn, Toledo, Ohio, 1909 An Alcohol bar in Dublin, Ireland An Alcohol bar in Dublin, Ireland Bar counter in Hamburg, Germany Bar counter in Hamburg, Germany Bar in Manhattan, New York City Bar in Manhattan, New York City Bar inside a nightclub in Munich, Germany Bar inside a nightclub in Munich, Germany In fiction Main article: List of fictional bars and pubs Bars are a popular setting for fictional works, and in many cases, authors and other creators have developed imaginary bar locations that have become notable, such as the bar for Cheers, co*cktails and Dreams bar in the film co*cktail (1988), the Copacabana bar in the crime film Goodfellas, the rough and tumble Double Deuce in Road House (1989), The Kit Kat Klub in Cabaret, the Korova Milk Bar in the dystopian novel and film adaptation of A Clockwork Orange, the Mos Eisley cantina-bar in Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977), and the Steinway Beer Garden from the crime-themed video game Grand Theft Auto IV. See also Alcohol-free bar Beer garden Cellarette (liquor cabinet) Dive bar Drinking culture Honky-tonk Hostess bar Izakaya Juke joint Last call (bar term) List of bartenders List of public house topics Pub Shebeen Speakeasy Tavern Tiki bar Western saloon Portals: icon Beer icon Wine icon Liquor Companies icon Society References Harper, Douglas. "bar". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2019-05-18. - 'bar[:] "tavern," 1590s, so called in reference to the bars of the barrier or counter over which drinks or food were served to customers [...].' Dayton, Todd (2004). San Francisco's Best Dive Bars: Drinking and Diving in the City by the Bay. Ig Publishing. p. 4. ISBN 9780970312587. Retrieved 2010-07-22. John M. Kingsdale, "The 'Poor Man's Club': Social Functions of the Urban-Working Class Saloon", in American Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 4. (Oct. 1973) Julia Goicichea (August 16, 2017). "Why New York City Is a Major Destination for LGBT Travelers". The Culture Trip. Retrieved February 2, 2019. "Workforce Diversity The Stonewall Inn, National Historic Landmark National Register Number: 99000562". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 1, 2011. Eli Rosenberg (June 24, 2016). "Stonewall Inn Named National Monument, a First for the Gay Rights Movement". The New York Times. Retrieved June 25, 2016. Burns, Ken, and Novick, Lynn, Prohibition, 2011 Prohibition Repeal is Ratified at 5:32 P.M., The New York Times, December 5, 1933 Ritenbaugh, Stephanie (May 14, 2014). "In The Lead: Pittsburgh leads with the most bars per person". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 14, 2014. Bibliography Hamill, Pete (1994). A Drinking Life: A Memoir. New York: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 978-0-316-34102-8. Maloney, Ralph (2012). How to Drink Like a Mad Man. Mineola, New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-48352-8. A humorous account of the drinking culture of Madison Avenue advertising executives during the 1960s. Originally published in 1962 as The 24-Hour Drink Book: A Guide to Executive Survival. Moehringer, J.R. (2005). The Tender Bar: A Memoir. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 978-1-4013-0064-7. Beer is one of the oldest[1][2][3] and the most widely consumed[4] type of alcoholic drink in the world. The third most popular drink overall after water and tea[5] - it is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn), rice, and oats are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer.[6] Most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.[7] Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours,[8] and "The Hymn to Ninkasi", a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.[9][10] Beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), although it may vary between 0.5% and 20%, with some breweries creating examples of 40% ABV and above.[11] Beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling, pub quizzes and pub games. When beer is distilled, the resulting liquor is a form of whisky.[12] Etymology See also: Ale § Etymology Old English: Beore 'beer' In early forms of English, and in the Scandinavian languages, the usual word for beer was the word whose Modern English form is ale.[13] The word beer comes into present-day English from Old English bēor, itself from Common Germanic; although the word is not attested in the East Germanic branch of the language-family, it is found throughout the West Germanic and North Germanic dialects (modern Dutch and German bier, Old Norse bjórr). The earlier etymology of the word is debated: the three main theories are that the word originates in Proto-Germanic *beuzą (putatively from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeusóm), meaning 'brewer's yeast, beer dregs'; that it is related to the word barley; or that it was somehow borrowed from Latin bibere 'to drink'.[14][15][13] In Old English and Old Norse, the beer-word did not denote a malted alcoholic drink like ale, but a sweet, potent drink made from honey and the juice of one or more fruits other than grapes, much less ubiquitous than ale, perhaps served in the kind of tiny drinking cups sometimes found in early medieval grave-goods: a drink more like mead or cider. In German, however, the meaning of the beer-word expanded to cover the meaning of the ale-word already before our earliest surviving written evidence. As German hopped ale became fashionable in England in the late Middle Ages, the English word beer took on the German meaning, and thus in English too beer came during the early modern period to denote hopped, malt-based alcoholic drinks.[13] History Main article: History of beer Egyptian wooden model of beer making in ancient Egypt, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose, California Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared alcoholic drinks. The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000-year-old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel.[16][17] There is evidence that beer was produced at Göbekli Tepe during the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (around 8500 BC to 5500 BC).[18] The earliest clear chemical evidence of beer produced from barley dates to about 3500–3100 BC, from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.[19][20] It is possible, but not proven, that it dates back even further—to about 10,000 BC, when cereal was first farmed.[21] Beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt,[22][23] and archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations.[24] Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk (modern day Iraq) were paid by their employers with volumes of beer.[25] During the building of the Great Pyramids in Giza, Egypt, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment that was crucial to the pyramids' construction.[26] Some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer; examples include a prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi",[27] which served as both a prayer and a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people, and the ancient advice ("Fill your belly. Day and night make merry") to Gilgamesh, recorded in the Epic of Gilgamesh, by the ale-wife Siduri may, at least in part, have referred to the consumption of beer.[28] The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, Syria, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500 BC.[29] A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000 BC. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice (amylolytic fermentation); the rice was probably prepared for fermentation by chewing or malting.[30][31] During the Vedic period in Ancient India, there are records of consumption of the beer-like sura.[32][33] Xenophon noted that during his travels, beer was being produced in Armenia.[34] Almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation, and can thus be utilized in the brewing of beer. It is likely that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer. Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations.[35][36][37][38] François Jaques: Peasants Enjoying Beer at Pub in Fribourg (Switzerland, 1923) Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC,[citation needed] and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale.[39] The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers may have contained fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs.[40] What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot[41] and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen.[42] In 1516, William IV, Duke of Bavaria, adopted the Reinheitsgebot (purity law), perhaps the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water, hops, and barley-malt.[43] Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century.[44] The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. In 1912, brown bottles began to be used by Joseph Schlitz Brewing Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin in the United States. This innovation has since been accepted worldwide and prevents harmful rays from destroying the quality and stability of beer.[45] As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.[46] As of 2006, more than 133 billion litres (35 billion US gallons), the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold per year, producing total global revenues of US$294.5 billion. In 2010, China's beer consumption hit 450 million hectolitres (45 billion litres), or nearly twice that of the United States, but only 5 per cent sold were premium draught beers, compared with 50 per cent in France and Germany.[47] A recent and widely publicized study suggests that sudden decreases in barley production due to extreme drought and heat could in the future cause substantial volatility in the availability and price of beer.[48] Brewing A clickable diagram depicting the process of brewing beerHot water tankMash tunMaltHopsCopperHopbackAdd yeast to fermenterHeat exchangerBottlingCask or keg Main article: Brewing The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history, in which case the brewing location is often called a brewhouse. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is today usually classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. Historically, domestic beer was what's called farmhouse ale. Brewing beer has been subject to legislation and taxation for millennia, and from the late 19th century taxation largely restricted brewing to commercial operations only in the UK. However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the US in 1978,[49] though individual states were allowed to pass their own laws limiting production,[50] allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby. The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic drink known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast. The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is known as "mashing". Hot water (known as "liquor" in brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts (known as "grist") in a mash tun.[51] The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours,[52] during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The grains are then washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist.[53] A 16th-century brewery Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge, collecting the original wort and the sparge water together. However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. This process is known as second (and third) runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing.[54] The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a kettle, or "copper" (so-called because these vessels were traditionally made from copper),[55] and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer.[56] After boiling, the hopped wort is cooled, ready for the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process that requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing ethanol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear.[57] During fermentation most of the carbon dioxide is allowed to escape through a trap and the beer is left with carbonation of only about one atmosphere of pressure. The carbonation is often increased either by transferring the beer to a pressure vessel such as a keg and introducing pressurized carbon dioxide, or by transferring it before the fermentation is finished so that carbon dioxide pressure builds up inside the container as the fermentation finishes. Sometimes the beer is put unfiltered (so it still contains yeast) into bottles with some added sugar, which then produces the desired amount of carbon dioxide inside the bottle.[7] Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity.[58] When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other sorts of beer.[59] Ingredients Malted barley before roasting The basic ingredients of beer are water; a starch source, such as malted barley, or malted maize (such as used in the preparation of Tiswin and Tesgüino), able to be saccharified (converted to sugars) then fermented (converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide); a brewer's yeast to produce the fermentation; and a flavouring such as hops.[60] A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary carbohydrate source, such as maize (corn), rice, wheat, or sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used alongside malted barley.[61] Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, and potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others.[62] The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. Water is the main ingredient of beer, accounting for 93% of its weight.[63] Though water itself is, ideally, flavorless, its level of dissolved minerals, specifically, bicarbonate ion, does influence beer's finished taste.[64] Due to the mineral properties of each region's water, specific areas were originally the sole producers of certain types of beer, each identifiable by regional characteristics.[65] Regional geology accords that Dublin's hard water is well-suited to making stout, such as Guinness, while the Plzeň Region's soft water is ideal for brewing Pilsner (pale lager), such as Pilsner Urquell.[65] The waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation.[66] The starch source, termed as the "mash ingredients", in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars.[67] Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers.[68] Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because its fibrous hull remains attached to the grain during threshing. After malting, barley is milled, which finally removes the hull, breaking it into large pieces. These pieces remain with the grain during the mash, and act as a filter bed during lautering, when sweet wort is separated from insoluble grain material. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beer, made with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.[69] Hop cone in a Hallertau, Germany, hop yard Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops.[70] The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops". The first historical mention of the use of hops in beer was from 822 AD in monastery rules written by Adalhard the Elder, also known as Adalard of Corbie,[44][71] though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century.[44][71] Before the thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer was flavoured with other plants; for instance, grains of paradise or alehoof. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used.[72] Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales company[73] and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company,[74] use plants other than hops for flavouring. Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms and aids in "head retention",[75][76] the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative.[77][78] Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour.[79] The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are the top-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae and bottom-fermenting Saccharomyces pastorianus.[80] Brettanomyces ferments lambics,[81] and Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian weissbier.[82] Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures.[83] Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents or finings to beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as wheat beers.[84] Examples of clarifying agents include isinglass, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin.[85] If a beer is marked "suitable for vegans", it was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents.[86] Brewing industry Brewing factory Annual beer consumption per capita by country The history of breweries in the 21st century has included larger breweries absorbing smaller breweries in order to ensure economy of scale.[clarification needed] In 2002, South African Breweries bought the North American Miller Brewing Company to found SABMiller, becoming the second largest brewery, after North American Anheuser-Busch. In 2004, the Belgian Interbrew was the third largest brewery by volume and the Brazilian AmBev was the fifth largest. They merged into InBev, becoming the largest brewery. In 2007, SABMiller surpassed InBev and Anheuser-Bush when it acquired Royal Grolsch, brewer of Dutch premium beer brand Grolsch in 2007.[87] In 2008, when InBev (the second-largest) bought Anheuser-Busch (the third largest), the new Anheuser-Busch InBev company became again the largest brewer in the world.[88] As of 2020, according to the market research firm Technavio, AB InBev remains the largest brewing company in the world, with Heineken second, CR Snow third, Carlsberg fourth, and Molson Coors fifth.[89] A microbrewery, or craft brewery, produces a limited amount of beer. The maximum amount of beer a brewery can produce and still be classed as a microbrewery varies by region and by authority; in the US it is 15,000 US beer barrels (1.8 megalitres; 390 thousand imperial gallons; 460 thousand US gallons) a year.[90] A brewpub is a type of microbrewery that incorporates a pub or other drinking establishment. The highest density of breweries in the world, most of them microbreweries, exists in the German Region of Franconia, especially in the district of Upper Franconia, which has about 200 breweries.[91][92] The Benedictine Weihenstephan brewery in Bavaria, Germany, can trace its roots to the year 768, as a document from that year refers to a hop garden in the area paying a tithe to the monastery. The brewery was licensed by the City of Freising in 1040, and therefore is the oldest working brewery in the world.[93] Varieties Main article: Beer style Cask ale hand pumps with pump clips detailing the beers and their breweries While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries.[94] The traditional European brewing regions—Germany, Belgium, England and the Czech Republic—have local varieties of beer.[95] English writer Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names.[96] Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989. Top-fermented beers are most commonly produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a top-fermenting yeast which clumps and rises to the surface,[97] typically between 15 and 25 °C (59 and 77 °F). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others.[98] After the introduction of hops into England from Flanders in the 15th century, "ale" referred to an unhopped fermented drink, "beer" being used to describe a brew with an infusion of hops.[99] Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973[100] for "beer brewed from traditional ingredients, matured by secondary fermentation in the container from which it is dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous carbon dioxide". It is applied to bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers. Pale ale is a beer which uses a top-fermenting yeast[101] and predominantly pale malt. It is one of the world's major beer styles. Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow fermenting yeast. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name "porter" was first used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer popular with the street and river porters of London.[102] This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677.[103] The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined.[104] Mild ale has a predominantly malty palate. It is usually dark coloured with an abv of 3% to 3.6%, although there are lighter hued milds as well as stronger examples reaching 6% abv and higher. Wheat beer is brewed with a large proportion of wheat although it often also contains a significant proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually top-fermented.[105] The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style. Kriek, a variety of beer brewed with cherries Lambic, a beer of Belgium, is naturally fermented using wild yeasts, rather than cultivated. Many of these are not strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus are common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness.[106] Lager is cool fermented beer. Pale lagers are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. Many are of the “pilsner” type. The name "lager" comes from the German "lagern" for "to store", as brewers around Bavaria stored beer in cool cellars and caves during the warm summer months. These brewers noticed that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of sediment, when stored in cool conditions.[107] Lager yeast is a cool bottom-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7–12 °C (45–54 °F) (the fermentation phase), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0–4 °C (32–39 °F) (the lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a "cleaner"-tasting beer.[108] With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks. Measurement Main article: Beer measurement Beer is measured and assessed by bitterness, by strength and by colour. The perceived bitterness is measured by the International Bitterness Units scale (IBU), defined in co-operation between the American Society of Brewing Chemists and the European Brewery Convention.[109] The international scale was a development of the European Bitterness Units scale, often abbreviated as EBU, and the bitterness values should be identical.[110] Colour Paulaner dunkel – a dark lager Beer colour is determined by the malt.[111] The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers made from malt dried with the fuel co*ke. co*ke was first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it was not until around 1703 that the term pale ale was used.[112][113] In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen in the present-day Czech Republic.[114] The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation (fizzy bubbles) and a typical alcohol by volume content of around 5%.[115] The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller. Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted barley.[116][117] Strength See also: Beer measurement § Strength Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to around 14% abv, though this strength can be increased to around 20% by re-pitching with champagne yeast,[118] and to 55% abv by the freeze-distilling process.[119] The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice or beer style.[120] The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%.[121] The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv.[122] In Belgium, some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%–4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools.[123] The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers) to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a by-product of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast in higher concentrations; typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts and consequently decreases the alcohol content. The weakest beers are dealcoholized beers, which typically have less than 0.05% alcohol (also called "near beer") and light beers, which usually have 4% alcohol. The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of the 20th century. Vetter 33, a 10.5% abv (33 degrees Plato, hence Vetter "33") doppelbock, was listed in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest beer at that time,[124][125] though Samichlaus, by the Swiss brewer Hürlimann, had also been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at 14% abv.[126][127][128] Since then, some brewers have used champagne yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers. Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with Millennium,[118] and then surpassed that amount to 25.6% abv with Utopias. The strongest beer brewed in Britain was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv beer.[129][130] In September 2011, the Scottish brewery BrewDog produced Ghost Deer, which, at 28%, they claim to be the world's strongest beer produced by fermentation alone.[131] The product claimed to be the strongest beer made is Schorschbräu's 2011 Schorschbock 57 with 57,5%.[132][133] It was preceded by The End of History, a 55% Belgian ale,[119] made by BrewDog in 2010. The same company had previously made Sink The Bismarck!, a 41% abv IPA,[134] and Tactical Nuclear Penguin, a 32% abv Imperial stout. Each of these beers are made using the eisbock method of fractional freezing, in which a strong ale is partially frozen and the ice is repeatedly removed, until the desired strength is reached,[135][136] a process that may class the product as spirits rather than beer.[137] The German brewery Schorschbräu's Schorschbock, a 31% abv eisbock,[138][139][140] and Hair of the Dog's Dave, a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994, used the same fractional freezing method.[141] A 60% abv blend of beer with whiskey was jokingly claimed as the strongest beer by a Dutch brewery in July 2010.[142][143] Serving Draught Main articles: Draught beer and Cask ale A selection of cask beers Draught (also spelled "draft") beer from a pressurised keg using a lever-style dispenser and a spout is the most common method of dispensing in bars around the world. A metal keg is pressurised with carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which drives the beer to the dispensing tap or faucet. Some beers may be served with a nitrogen/carbon dioxide mixture. Nitrogen produces fine bubbles, resulting in a dense head and a creamy mouthfeel. Some types of beer can also be found in smaller, disposable kegs called beer balls. In traditional pubs, the pull levers for major beer brands may include the beer's logo and trademark. In the 1980s, Guinness introduced the beer widget, a nitrogen-pressurised ball inside a can which creates a dense, tight head, similar to beer served from a nitrogen system.[144] The words draft and draught can be used as marketing terms to describe canned or bottled beers containing a beer widget, or which are cold-filtered rather than pasteurised. Cask-conditioned ales (or cask ales) are unfiltered and unpasteurised beers. These beers are termed "real ale" by the CAMRA organisation. Typically, when a cask arrives in a pub, it is placed horizontally on a frame called a "stillage" which is designed to hold it steady and at the right angle, and then allowed to cool to cellar temperature (typically between 11–13 °C or 52–55 °F),[145] before being tapped and vented—a tap is driven through a (usually rubber) bung at the bottom of one end, and a hard spile or other implement is used to open a hole in the side of the cask, which is now uppermost. The act of stillaging and then venting a beer in this manner typically disturbs all the sediment, so it must be left for a suitable period to "drop" (clear) again, as well as to fully condition—this period can take anywhere from several hours to several days. At this point the beer is ready to sell, either being pulled through a beer line with a hand pump, or simply being "gravity-fed" directly into the glass. Draught beer's environmental impact can be 68% lower than bottled beer due to packaging differences.[146][147] A life cycle study of one beer brand, including grain production, brewing, bottling, distribution and waste management, shows that the CO2 emissions from a 6-pack of micro-brew beer is about 3 kilograms (6.6 pounds).[148] The loss of natural habitat potential from the 6-pack of micro-brew beer is estimated to be 2.5 square metres (26 square feet).[149] Downstream emissions from distribution, retail, storage and disposal of waste can be over 45% of a bottled micro-brew beer's CO2 emissions.[148] Where legal, the use of a refillable jug, reusable bottle or other reusable containers to transport draught beer from a store or a bar, rather than buying pre-bottled beer, can reduce the environmental impact of beer consumption.[150] Packaging Main articles: Beer bottle and Drink can Assortment of beer bottles Most beers are cleared of yeast by filtering when packaged in bottles and cans.[151] However, bottle conditioned beers retain some yeast—either by being unfiltered, or by being filtered and then reseeded with fresh yeast.[152] It is usually recommended that the beer be poured slowly, leaving any yeast sediment at the bottom of the bottle. However, some drinkers prefer to pour in the yeast; this practice is customary with wheat beers. Typically, when serving a hefeweizen wheat beer, 90% of the contents are poured, and the remainder is swirled to suspend the sediment before pouring it into the glass. Alternatively, the bottle may be inverted prior to opening. Glass bottles are always used for bottle conditioned beers. Many beers are sold in cans, though there is considerable variation in the proportion between different countries. In Sweden in 2001, 63.9% of beer was sold in cans.[153] People either drink from the can or pour the beer into a glass. A technology developed by Crown Holdings for the 2010 FIFA World Cup is the 'full aperture' can, so named because the entire lid is removed during the opening process, turning the can into a drinking cup.[154] Cans protect the beer from light (thereby preventing "skunked" beer) and have a seal less prone to leaking over time than bottles. Cans were initially viewed as a technological breakthrough for maintaining the quality of a beer, then became commonly associated with less expensive, mass-produced beers, even though the quality of storage in cans is much like bottles.[155] Plastic (PET) bottles are used by some breweries.[156] Temperature The temperature of a beer has an influence on a drinker's experience; warmer temperatures reveal the range of flavours in a beer but cooler temperatures are more refreshing. Most drinkers prefer pale lager to be served chilled, a low- or medium-strength pale ale to be served cool, while a strong barley wine or imperial stout to be served at room temperature.[157] Beer writer Michael Jackson proposed a five-level scale for serving temperatures: well chilled (7 °C or 45 °F) for "light" beers (pale lagers); chilled (8 °C or 46 °F) for Berliner Weisse and other wheat beers; lightly chilled (9 °C or 48 °F) for all dark lagers, altbier and German wheat beers; cellar temperature (13 °C or 55 °F) for regular British ale, stout and most Belgian specialities; and room temperature (15.5 °C or 60 °F) for strong dark ales (especially trappist beer) and barley wine.[158] Drinking chilled beer began with the development of artificial refrigeration and by the 1870s, was spread in those countries that concentrated on brewing pale lager.[159] Chilling beer makes it more refreshing,[160] though below 15.5 °C (60 °F) the chilling starts to reduce taste awareness[161] and reduces it significantly below 10 °C (50 °F).[162] Beer served unchilled—either cool or at room temperature—reveal more of their flavours. Cask Marque, a non-profit UK beer organisation, has set a temperature standard range of 12°–14 °C (53°–57 °F) for cask ales to be served.[163] Vessels Main article: Beer glassware Beer is consumed out of a variety of vessels, such as a glass, a beer stein, a mug, a pewter tankard, a beer bottle or a can; or at music festivals and some bars and nightclubs, from a plastic cup. The shape of the glass from which beer is consumed can influence the perception of the beer and can define and accent the character of the style.[164] Breweries offer branded glassware intended only for their own beers as a marketing promotion, as this increases sales of their product.[165] The pouring process has an influence on a beer's presentation. The rate of flow from the tap or other serving vessel, tilt of the glass, and position of the pour (in the centre or down the side) into the glass all influence the result, such as the size and longevity of the head, lacing (the pattern left by the head as it moves down the glass as the beer is drunk), and the release of carbonation.[166] A beer tower is a beer dispensing device, usually found in bars and pubs, that consists of a cylinder attached to a beer cooling device at the bottom. Beer is dispensed from the beer tower into a drinking vessel. Health effects See also: Short-term effects of alcohol consumption and Long-term effects of alcohol consumption A 2016 systematic review and meta-analysis found that moderate ethanol consumption brought no mortality benefit compared with lifetime abstention from ethanol consumption.[167] Some studies have concluded that drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink in women and two in men, per day) is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death.[168] Some of these studies combined former ethanol drinkers and lifelong abstainers into a single group of nondrinkers, which hides the health benefits of lifelong abstention from ethanol. The long-term health effects of continuous, moderate or heavy alcohol consumption include the risk of developing alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease. Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.[169] It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[170][171] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.[171] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[172] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.[168] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking alcoholic beverages.[168][173] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol.[174] It is considered that overeating and lack of muscle tone is the main cause of a beer belly, rather than beer consumption. A 2004 study, however, found a link between binge drinking and a beer belly. But with most overconsumption, it is more a problem of improper exercise and overconsumption of carbohydrates than the product itself.[175] Several diet books quote beer as having an undesirably high glycemic index of 110, the same as maltose; however, the maltose in beer undergoes metabolism by yeast during fermentation so that beer consists mostly of water, hop oils and only trace amounts of sugars, including maltose.[176] Nutritional information Beers vary in their nutritional content.[177] The ingredients used to make beer, including the yeast, provide a rich source of nutrients; therefore beer may contain nutrients including magnesium, selenium, potassium, phosphorus, biotin, chromium and B vitamins. Beer is sometimes referred to as "liquid bread",[178] though beer is not a meal in itself.[179] Nutritional information of different beers (serving size: 12 oz./355 ml) Beer Brand Carbohydrate (g) Alcohol (%) Energy (kcal) Budweiser Select 55 1.8 2.4 55 Coors Light 5 4.2 102 Guinness Draught 10 4.0 126 Sierra Nevada Bigfoot 30.3 9.6 330 Society and culture See also: Category:Beer culture A tent at Munich's Oktoberfest in Germany. The event is known as the world's largest beer festival. Beer culture in Cameroon. A friendship drink of millet beer at the market, Mogode, Cameroon, 1998. In many societies, beer is the most popular alcoholic drink. Various social traditions and activities are associated with beer drinking, such as playing cards, darts, or other pub games; attending beer festivals; engaging in zythology (the study of beer);[180][181] visiting a series of pubs in one evening; visiting breweries; beer-oriented tourism; or rating beer.[182] Drinking games, such as beer pong, are also popular.[183] A relatively new profession is that of the beer sommelier, who informs restaurant patrons about beers and food pairings. Beer is considered to be a social lubricant in many societies[184][185] and is consumed in countries all over the world. There are breweries in Middle Eastern countries such as Syria, and in some African countries. Sales of beer are four times those of wine, which is the second most popular alcoholic drink.[186] A study published in the Neuropsychopharmacology journal in 2013 revealed the finding that the flavour of beer alone could provoke dopamine activity in the brain of the male participants, who wanted to drink more as a result. The 49 men in the study were subject to positron emission tomography scans, while a computer-controlled device sprayed minute amounts of beer, water and a sports drink onto their tongues. Compared with the taste of the sports drink, the taste of beer significantly increased the participants desire to drink. Test results indicated that the flavour of the beer triggered a dopamine release, even though alcohol content in the spray was insufficient for the purpose of becoming intoxicated.[187] Some breweries have developed beers to pair with food.[188][189][190] Wine writer Malcolm Gluck disputed the need to pair beer with food, while beer writers Roger Protz and Melissa Cole contested that claim.[191][192][193] Related drinks See also: Category:Types of beer Around the world, there are many traditional and ancient starch-based drinks classed as beer. In Africa, there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or millet, such as Oshikundu[194] in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia.[195] Kyrgyzstan also has a beer made from millet; it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-like drink called "Bozo".[196] Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalayas.[197] Further east in China are found Huangjiu and Choujiu—traditional rice-based drinks related to beer. The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from germinated maize (corn); while the indigenous peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional drink made since pre-Columbian times by chewing manioc so that an enzyme (amylase) present in human saliva can break down the starch into fermentable sugars;[198] this is similar to Masato in Peru.[199] Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland, Kvass in Russia and Ukraine, and Bouza in Sudan. 4000 years ago fermented bread was used in Mesopotamia. Food waste activists got inspired by this ancient recipes and use leftover bread to replace a third of the malted barley that would otherwise be used for brewing their craft ale.[200] Chemistry Main article: Beer chemistry Beer contains the phenolic acids 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and sinapic acid. 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Protz, Roger, The Guardian: Word of Mouth (15 January 2009). Let's hear it for beer Archived 1 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine Cole, Melissa, The Guardian: Word of Mouth (27 January 2009). The eye of the ale storm Archived 1 November 2022 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian: Word of Mouth (6 February 2009). Beer-drinking sadsacks strike back Archived 5 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine "Recuperation" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008. "EthnoMed: Traditional Foods of the Central Ethiopian Highlands". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008. Surina, Asele; Mack, Glenn Randall (2005). Food culture in Russia and Central Asia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32773-5. "Research & Culture, Kathmandu rich in Culture, Machchhendranath Temple, Akash Bhairav Temple, Hanumandhoka Durbar Square, Temple of Kumari Ghar, Jaishi Dewal, Martyr's Memorial (Sahid) Gate, Singha Durbar". Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 28 September 2008., Lewin Louis and Louis Levin, Phantastica: A Classic Survey on the Use and Abuse of Mind-Altering Plants, Inner Traditions / Bear & Company (1998), ISBN 0-89281-783-6 Anthropological Society of London (1863). The Anthropological Review. Trübner. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-559-56998-2. Masato yuca. Oli Bloor, Ed Scott-Clarke and Katy Scott (18 December 2017). "The brewery that turns bread into beer". CNN. Retrieved 19 November 2020. Nardini, M (2004). "Determination of free and bound phenolic acids in beer". Food Chemistry. 84: 137–143. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(03)00257-7. Nikolic, D; Li, Y; Chadwick, LR; Grubjesic, S; Schwab, P; Metz, P; Van Breemen, RB (2004). "Metabolism of 8-prenylnaringenin, a potent phytoestrogen from hops (Humulus lupulus), by human liver microsomes". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 32 (2): 272–9. doi:10.1124/dmd.32.2.272. PMID 14744951. S2CID 17486431. "Hops: Humulus lupulus". Retrieved 14 February 2009. Szlavko, Clara M. (1973). "Tryptophol, Tyrosol and Phenylethanol-The Aromatic Higher Alcohols in Beer". Journal of the Institute of Brewing. 79 (4): 283–288. doi:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1973.tb03541.x. Ribéreau-Gayon, P.; Sapis, J. C. (1965). "On the presence in wine of tyrosol, tryptophol, phenylethyl alcohol and gamma-butyrolactone, secondary products of alcoholic fermentation". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série D (in French). 261 (8): 1915–1916. PMID 4954284. Bibliography Alexander, Jeffrey W. Brewed in Japan: The Evolution of the Japanese Beer Industry (University of British Columbia Press; 2013) 316 pages Ale, Beer and Brewsters in England: Women's Work in a Changing World, 1300–1600 , Judith M. Bennett. ISBN 0-19-512650-5 Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5.. Beer: The Story of the Pint, Martyn Cornell. ISBN 0-7553-1165-5 The Book of Beer Knowledge: Essential Wisdom for the Discerning Drinker, a Useful Miscellany, Jeff Evans. ISBN 1-85249-198-1 The World Encyclopedia of Beer, Brian Glover. ISBN 0-7548-0933-1 Beer: An Illustrated History, Brian Glover. ISBN 1-84038-597-9 The Beer Book, Tim Hampson. ISBN 978-1-4093-5347-8 Beer and Britannia: An Inebriated History of Britain, Peter Haydon. ISBN 0-7509-2748-8 A History of Beer and Brewing, I. Hornsey. ISBN 0-85404-630-5 The World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson. ISBN 1-85076-000-4 The New World Guide to Beer, Michael Jackson. ISBN 0-89471-884-3 Archeological Parameters For the Origins of Beer Archived 6 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Thomas W. Kavanagh. Beer in America: The Early Years 1587–1840—Beer's Role in the Settling of America and the Birth of a Nation, Gregg Smith. ISBN 0-937381-65-9 Farmhouse Ales: Culture and Craftsmanship in the Belgian Tradition, Phil Marowski. ISBN 0-937381-84-5 The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe, Max Nelson. ISBN 0-415-31121-7. The Brewmaster's Table, Garrett Oliver. ISBN 0-06-000571-8 The Complete Joy of Homebrewing, Charlie Papazian ISBN 0-380-77287-6 Protz, Roger (2004). The Complete Guide to World Beer. ISBN 978-1-84442-865-6. Gone for a Burton: Memories from a Great British Heritage, Bob Ricketts. ISBN 1-905203-69-1 Country House Brewing in England, 1500–1900, Pamela Sambrook. ISBN 1-85285-127-9 Big Book of Beer, Adrian Tierney-Jones. ISBN 1-85249-212-0 Bacchus and Civic Order: The Culture of Drink in Early Modern Germany, Ann Tlusty. ISBN 0-8139-2045-0 Vaughan, J. G.; C. A. Geissler (1997). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-854825-6. Further reading Boulton, Christopher (Original Author) (August 2013). Encyclopaedia of Brewing. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 716 pages. ISBN 978-1-4051-6744-4. {{cite encyclopedia}}: |first1= has generic name (help) Colicchio, Tom (Foreword) (October 2011). "The Oxford Companion to Beer". In Oliver, Garrett (ed.). Oxford Companion To ... (Hardcover) (1 ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 960. ISBN 978-0-19-536713-3. Rhodes, Christine P.; Lappies, Pamela B., eds. (October 1997). The Encyclopedia of Beer (Paperback) (Reprint ed.). New York, NY: Henry Holt & Co. p. 509. ISBN 978-0-8050-5554-2. Webb, Tim; Beaumont, Stephen (October 2012). The World Atlas of Beer: The Essential Guide to the Beers of the World (Hardcover). New York, NY: Sterling Epicure. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-4027-8961-8. Kenning, David (2010). Beers of the World: Over 350 Classic Beers, Lagers, Ales and Porters (Hardcover). Bath: Parragon. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-4454-0878-1. External links Media related to Beer at Wikimedia Commons Wikisource logo Works written on the topic Beer at Wikisource Quotations related to Beer at Wikiquote Beer travel guide from Wikivoyage vte Beer styles (list) Lager BockDortmunder ExportDunkelHellesKellerbierMärzenPale lagerPilsnerSchwarzbierZoigl Ale AltbierAmber aleAmerican pale aleBarley wineBitterBrown aleBurton aleCopper aleCream aleDubbelFarmhouse ale Bière de GardeGrisetteSaisonIndia pale aleIrish red aleGoseGrodziskieKentucky common beerKölschMild aleOld alePale alePorter Baltic porterPumpkin aleQuadrupelSahtiScotch aleStoutStrong aleTripelWheat beer Other styles Sour beer American wild aleBerliner WeisseFlanders red aleLambic FramboiseGueuzeKriekOud bruin Corn beerFruit beer Banana beerHard sodaIce beerKvass PodpiwekLight beerMalt beerMillet beer PitoRye beerSmall beerSmoked beer RauchbierSpruce beerSteam beer / California CommonTella See also Abbey beers TrappistAdjunctsBarrel-aged beerBeer and breweries by regionBeer sommelierBreweryLow-alcohol beerReal aleSeasonal beer The top pub names in the UK 1 Red Lion 2 The Crown 3 Royal Oak 4 White Hart 5 The Swan 6 The Plough 7 The Bell 8 Rose & Crown 9 Queens Head 10 Railway Tavern 11 The Ship 12 Kings Arms 13 White Horse 14 Kings Head 15 Chequers 16 Rising Sun 17 The George 18 Fox & Hounds 19 Prince of Wales 20 Black Horse 21 The Fox 22 Cross Keys 23 The Star 24 Three Horseshoes 25 The Greyhound 26 Coach & Horses 27 The Victoria 28 George & Dragon 29 Masons Arms 30 Hare & Hounds 31 White Lion 32 The Sun 33 White Swan 34 Nags Head 35 Carpenters Arms 36 Duke of York 37 Cricketers 38 Windmill 39 Black Lion 40 Travellers Rest 41 Station Hotel 42 Golden Lion 43 The George 44 Bird in Hand 45 Black Bull 46 Horse & Groom 47 Butchers Arms 48 Bulls Head 49 The Beehive 50 The Anchor Top 100 Best Beer Brands in the World Discover the Top 100 best beer brands worldwide. Recent beer ratings and reviews from users around the world. Enjoy looking through our list of most popular beer brands. Photo Name Categories Price Rating Brand Country Bud-Light 1. Bud Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $26.99 4.9 Bud Light United States Coors-Light-Lager-Beer 2. Coors Light Lager Beer Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $21.99 4.9 Coors Beer United States Miller-Lite-Lager-Beer 3. Miller Lite Lager Beer Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $21.99 4.9 Miller Brewing Co. United States Corona-Extra 4. Corona Extra Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $18.39 4.9 Corona Mexico Michelob-ULTRA 5. Michelob ULTRA Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $24.99 4.9 Michelob United States Stella-Artois 6. Stella Artois Pale Lager, Lager $18.62 4.9 Stella Artois Belgium Modelo-Especial 7. Modelo Especial Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $18.49 4.9 Modelo Beer Mexico Guinness-Draught 8. Guinness Draught Stout, Dry Stout, ALE $10.29 4.9 Guinness Ireland Blue-Moon-Belgian-White-Wheat-Beer 9. Blue Moon Belgian White Wheat Beer Witbier, Wheat Ale, ALE $17.99 4.9 Blue Moon Beer United States Heineken-Lager 10. Heineken Lager Pale Lager, Lager $17.99 4.9 Heineken Netherlands Budweiser 11. Budweiser Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $2.69 4.9 Budweiser United States Lagunitas-IPA 12. Lagunitas IPA IPA, ALE $10.99 5.0 Lagunitas Beer United States Corona-Light 13. Corona Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $17.99 4.9 Corona Mexico New-Belgium-Fat-Tire-Amber-Ale 14. New Belgium Fat Tire Amber Ale Amber / Red Ale, ALE $3.99 4.9 New Belgium Brewing Company United States New-Belgium-Voodoo-Ranger-Imperial-IPA 15. New Belgium Voodoo Ranger Imperial IPA IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE $11.86 5.0 New Belgium Brewing Company United States Yuengling-Traditional-Lager 16. Yuengling Traditional Lager Lager, Amber / Vienna Lager $13.64 4.9 Yuengling United States Corona-Premier 17. Corona Premier Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $17.99 4.9 Corona Mexico Pabst-Blue-Ribbon 18. Pabst Blue Ribbon Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $6.96 4.9 Pabst Blue Ribbon Beer United States Sierra-Nevada-Hazy-Little-Thing-IPA 19. Sierra Nevada Hazy Little Thing IPA New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $10.99 4.9 Sierra Nevada United States Samuel-Adams-Octoberfest 20. Samuel Adams Octoberfest Seasonal Beer $10.04 5.0 Samuel Adams United States Founders-All-Day-IPA 21. Founders All Day IPA Session IPA, IPA, ALE $18.99 4.9 Founders Brewing Company United States Dos-Equis-Lager 22. Dos Equis Lager Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $16.99 4.9 Dos Equis Mexico Miller-High-Life-American-Lager-Beer 23. Miller High Life American Lager Beer Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $10.49 4.9 Miller Brewing Co. United States Coors-Banquet-Lager-Beer 24. Coors Banquet Lager Beer Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $19.99 4.9 Coors Beer United States Bud-Light-Platinum 25. Bud Light Platinum Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $15.39 4.8 Bud Light United States Bell’s-Two-Hearted-Ale-IPA 26. Bell’s Two Hearted Ale IPA IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE $9.99 5.0 Bell's Brewery United States Bud-Light-Lime 27. Bud Light Lime Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $14.99 5.0 Bud Light United States Modelo-Negra 28. Modelo Negra Lager, Amber / Vienna Lager $17.99 5.0 Modelo Beer Mexico Pacifico-Clara 29. Pacifico Clara Pale Lager, Lager $17.99 5.0 Pacifico Mexico Samuel-Adams-Boston-Lager-Beer 30. Samuel Adams Boston Lager Beer Lager, Amber / Vienna Lager $17.97 5.0 Samuel Adams United States Peroni-Nastro-Azzurro-Pale-Lager-Beer 31. Peroni Nastro Azzurro Pale Lager Beer Pale Lager, Lager, Dortmunder / Export Lager $17.99 4.9 Peroni Italy Allagash-White 32. Allagash White Witbier, Wheat Ale, ALE $12.99 4.9 Allagash United States Narragansett-Lager 33. Narragansett Lager Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $7.29 5.0 Narragansett United States Busch-Light 34. Busch Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $19.99 4.9 Busch United States Guinness-Extra-Stout 35. Guinness Extra Stout Stout, Dry Stout, ALE $10.49 4.9 Guinness Ireland Michelob-Ultra-Pure-Gold 36. Michelob Ultra Pure Gold Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $17.29 5.0 Michelob United States Sierra-Nevada-Pale-Ale 37. Sierra Nevada Pale Ale Pale Ale, American Pale Ale, ALE $17.99 5.0 Sierra Nevada United States Cigar-City-Brewing-Jai-Alai-IPA 38. Cigar City Brewing Jai Alai IPA IPA, ALE $11.57 4.9 Cigar City Brewing United States Left-Hand-Milk-Stout-Nitro 39. Left Hand Milk Stout Nitro Stout, Milk Stout, ALE $12.29 4.9 Left Hand United States New-Belgium-Voodoo-Ranger-IPA 40. New Belgium Voodoo Ranger IPA IPA, ALE $10.74 4.9 New Belgium Brewing Company United States Shiner-Bock 41. Shiner Bock Lager, Bock $9.99 5.0 Shiner United States Natural-Light 42. Natural Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $19.25 5.0 Natural Light United States Victory-Brewing-Sour-Monkey 43. Victory Brewing Sour Monkey Sour / Wild Ale, ALE $12.99 4.9 Victory Brewing Company United States Lawson’s-Sip-of-Sunshine-IPA 44. Lawson’s Sip of Sunshine IPA New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $16.99 5.0 Lawson's Finest Liquids United States Lagunitas-Little-Sumpin’-Sumpin’-Ale 45. Lagunitas Little Sumpin’ Sumpin’ Ale Wheat Ale, ALE $11.69 4.9 Lagunitas Beer United States Dogfish-Head-Seaquench-Ale 46. Dogfish Head Seaquench Ale Sour / Wild Ale, Gose, ALE $11.99 5.0 Dogfish Head United States New-Belgium-Voodoo-Ranger-Juicy-Haze-IPA 47. New Belgium Voodoo Ranger Juicy Haze IPA New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $11.49 5.0 New Belgium Brewing Company United States Victory-Golden-Monkey 48. Victory Golden Monkey Tripel, Belgian-Style Ale, ALE $13.79 5.0 Victory Brewing Company United States Lagunitas-Hazy-Wonder 49. Lagunitas Hazy Wonder New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $10.99 5.0 Lagunitas Beer United States Heineken-Light 50. Heineken Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $16.99 5.0 Heineken Netherlands Kona-Big-Wave-Golden-Ale 51. Kona Big Wave Golden Ale Golden / Blonde Ale, ALE $9.99 5.0 Kona United States Dogfish-Head-90-Minute-IPA 52. Dogfish Head 90 Minute IPA IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE $15.39 5.0 Dogfish Head United States Mighty-Squirrel-Cloud-Candy-IPA 53. Mighty Squirrel Cloud Candy IPA New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $14.8 5.0 Mighty Squirrel United States Lagunitas-DayTime-IPA 54. Lagunitas DayTime IPA Session IPA, IPA, ALE $10.62 5.0 Lagunitas Beer United States Elysian-Brewing-Space-Dust-IPA 55. Elysian Brewing Space Dust IPA IPA, ALE $13.39 5.0 Elysian United States Rolling-Rock-Extra-Pale 56. Rolling Rock Extra Pale Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $10.66 5.0 Rolling Rock United States Shipyard-Seasonal 57. Shipyard Seasonal Seasonal Beer $9.99 5.0 Shipyard United States Lord-Hobo-Boomsauce-Double-IPA 58. Lord Hobo Boomsauce Double IPA IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE $14.94 5.0 Lord Hobo United States Tecate 59. Tecate Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $12.99 5.0 Tecate Mexico Night-Shift-Santilli-IPA 60. Night Shift Santilli IPA IPA, ALE $13.99 5.0 Night Shift United States Red-Stripe 61. Red Stripe Pale Lager, Lager $9.32 5.0 Red Stripe Jamaica Pilsner-Urquell-Beer 62. Pilsner Urquell Beer Pilsner, Lager $7.99 5.0 Pilsner Urquell Czech Republic Oskar-Blues-Dale’s-Pale-Ale 63. Oskar Blues Dale’s Pale Ale Pale Ale, American Pale Ale, ALE $18.99 5.0 Oskar Blues Brewery United States Corona-Extra-Coronita 64. Corona Extra Coronita Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $23.99 4.9 Corona Mexico Breckenridge-Brewery-15-Can-Sampler-Pack 65. Breckenridge Brewery 15 Can Sampler Pack IPA, ALE $17.86 5.0 Breckenridge Brewery United States Sixpoint-Resin 66. Sixpoint Resin IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE N/A 5.0 Sixpoint United States Hoegaarden-White 67. Hoegaarden White Witbier, Wheat Ale, ALE $10.99 5.0 Hoegaarden Belgium Harpoon-IPA 68. Harpoon IPA IPA, ALE $17.39 5.0 Harpoon United States Golden-Road-Brewing-Mango-Cart 69. Golden Road Brewing Mango Cart Wheat Ale, ALE $10.99 5.0 Golden Road Brewing United States Stone-Delicious-IPA 70. Stone Delicious IPA IPA, ALE $5.95 5.0 Stone Brewing Co. United States Amstel-Light 71. Amstel Light Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $16.99 5.0 Amstel Netherlands Ballast-Point-Sculpin-IPA 72. Ballast Point Sculpin IPA IPA, ALE $8.79 5.0 Ballast Point United States Schöfferhofer-Grapefruit-Hefeweizen 73. Schöfferhofer Grapefruit Hefeweizen Wheat Ale, Hefeweizen, ALE $10.49 5.0 Schofferhofer Germany Blue-Moon-Light-Sky-Wheat-Beer 74. Blue Moon Light Sky Wheat Beer Wheat Ale, ALE $17.99 5.0 Blue Moon Beer United States Natural-Ice 75. Natural Ice Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $18.89 4.8 Natural Light United States New-Holland-Dragon’s-Milk-Bourbon-Barrel-Stout 76. New Holland Dragon’s Milk Bourbon Barrel Stout Stout, Imperial Stout, ALE $9.49 4.9 New Holland United States Sloop-Brewing-Juice-Bomb-IPA 77. Sloop Brewing Juice Bomb IPA New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE $17.4 4.9 Sloop Brewing Co. United States Yuengling-Light-Lager 78. Yuengling Light Lager Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $21.73 5.0 Yuengling United States New-Belgium-Rotating-Seasonal,-Accumulation-White-IPA 79. New Belgium Rotating Seasonal, Accumulation White IPA Seasonal Beer $10.7 5.0 New Belgium Brewing Company United States Odell-90-Shilling-Ale 80. Odell 90 Shilling Ale Amber / Red Ale, ALE $18.99 5.0 Odell United States Guinness-Baltimore-Blonde 81. Guinness Baltimore Blonde Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $9.99 5.0 Guinness United States Dogfish-Head-Slightly-Mighty 82. Dogfish Head Slightly Mighty IPA, ALE $19.99 5.0 Dogfish Head United States Night-Shift-Nite-Lite-Craft-Light-Lager 83. Night Shift Nite Lite Craft Light Lager Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $7.79 5.0 Night Shift United States Brooklyn-Lager 84. Brooklyn Lager Lager, Amber / Vienna Lager $10.99 5.0 Brooklyn Brewery United States New-Belgium-Voodoo-Ranger-Rotating-IPA-Series 85. New Belgium Voodoo Ranger Rotating IPA Series IPA, ALE $11.62 5.0 New Belgium Brewing Company United States Dogfish-Head-60-Minute-IPA 86. Dogfish Head 60 Minute IPA IPA, ALE $11.99 5.0 Dogfish Head United States Beck’s 87. Beck’s Pilsner, Lager $15.39 5.0 Beck's Germany Maine-Beer-Company-Lunch 88. Maine Beer Company Lunch IPA, ALE $7.99 5.0 Maine Beer Company United States Station-26-Juicy-Banger-IPA 89. Station 26 Juicy Banger IPA IPA, ALE $11.99 5.0 Station 26 United States Lagunitas-Super-Cluster-IPA 90. Lagunitas Super Cluster IPA IPA, Imperial / Double IPA, ALE $10.52 5.0 Lagunitas Beer United States Odell-IPA 91. Odell IPA IPA, ALE $18.99 5.0 Odell United States Sierra-Nevada-Torpedo-Extra-IPA 92. Sierra Nevada Torpedo Extra IPA IPA, ALE $10.49 5.0 Sierra Nevada United States Firestone-Walker-Mind-Haze 93. Firestone Walker Mind Haze New England / Hazy IPA, IPA, ALE N/A 5.0 Firestone Walker United States Weihenstaphaner-Hefe-Weissbier 94. Weihenstaphaner Hefe Weissbier Wheat Ale, Hefeweizen, ALE $3.99 5.0 Weihenstephaner Germany Revolver-Brewing-Blood-and-Honey 95. Revolver Brewing Blood and Honey Wheat Ale, ALE $9.99 4.8 Revolver Brewing United States Firestone-Walker-805 96. Firestone Walker 805 Golden / Blonde Ale, ALE $19.99 5.0 Firestone Walker United States Stone-IPA 97. Stone IPA IPA, ALE $11.99 5.0 Stone Brewing Co. United States Dry-Dock-Brewing-Apricot-Blonde 98. Dry Dock Brewing Apricot Blonde Golden / Blonde Ale, ALE $9.99 5.0 Dry Dock United States LandShark-Lager 99. LandShark Lager Pale Lager, Lager, American-Style Lager $14.99 4.8 Landshark United States Blue-Moon-Mango-Wheat-Beer 100. Blue Moon Mango Wheat Beer Wheat Ale, ALE $10.44 5.0 Blue Moon Beer The Cheltenham Festival is a horse racing-based meeting in the National Hunt racing calendar in the United Kingdom, with race prize money second only to the Grand National.[1] The four-day festival takes place annually in March at Cheltenham Racecourse in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. It usually coincides with Saint Patrick's Day and is particularly popular with Irish visitors.[2] The meeting features several Grade I races including the Cheltenham Gold Cup, Champion Hurdle, Queen Mother Champion Chase and Stayers' Hurdle. Large amounts of money are gambled; hundreds of millions of pounds are bet over the course of the week. Cheltenham is noted for its atmosphere, including the "Cheltenham roar", which refers to the enormous amount of noise that the crowd generates as the starter raises the tape for the first race of the festival. Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Irish: Lá Fhéile Pádraig, lit. 'the Day of the Festival of Patrick'), is a religious and cultural holiday held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (c. 385 – c. 461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland. Saint Patrick's Day was made an official Christian feast day in the early 17th century and is observed by the Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion (especially the Church of Ireland),[7] the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Lutheran Church. The day commemorates Saint Patrick and the arrival of Christianity in Ireland, and, by extension, celebrates the heritage and culture of the Irish in general.[5][8] Celebrations generally involve public parades and festivals, céilithe, and the wearing of green attire or shamrocks.[9] Christians who belong to liturgical denominations also attend church services[8][10] and historically the Lenten restrictions on eating and drinking alcohol were lifted for the day, which has encouraged and propagated the holiday's tradition of alcohol consumption.[8][9][11][12] Saint Patrick's Day is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland,[13] Northern Ireland,[14] the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador (for provincial government employees), and the British Overseas Territory of Montserrat. It is also widely celebrated in the United Kingdom,[15] Canada, Brazil, United States, Argentina, Australia, South Africa,[16] and New Zealand, especially amongst Irish diaspora. Saint Patrick's Day is celebrated in more countries than any other national festival.[17] Modern celebrations have been greatly influenced by those of the Irish diaspora, particularly those that developed in North America. However, there has been criticism of Saint Patrick's Day celebrations for having become too commercialised and for fostering negative stereotypes of the Irish people The Cheltenham Festival is a horse racing-based meeting in the National Hunt racing calendar in the United Kingdom, with race prize money second only to the Grand National.[1] The four-day festival takes place annually in March at Cheltenham Racecourse in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. It usually coincides with Saint Patrick's Day and is particularly popular with Irish visitors.[2] The meeting features several Grade I races including the Cheltenham Gold Cup, Champion Hurdle, Queen Mother Champion Chase and Stayers' Hurdle. Large amounts of money are gambled; hundreds of millions of pounds are bet over the course of the week. Cheltenham is noted for its atmosphere, including the "Cheltenham roar", which refers to the enormous amount of noise that the crowd generates as the starter raises the tape for the first race of the festival. Grand National Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools Coordinates: 53°28′37″N 2°56′30″W From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the British horse race. For other uses, see Grand National (disambiguation). Grand National Premier Handicap race The Grand National in 2011 Location Aintree Racecourse Aintree, Merseyside, England Inaugurated 26 February 1839; 185 years ago Race type Steeplechase Sponsor Randox Website Grand National Race information Distance 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km) Surface Turf Track Left-handed Qualification Seven-years-old and up Rated 125 or more by BHA Previously placed in a recognised chase of 2 miles 7½ furlongs or more Weight Handicap Maximum: 11 st 10 lb Purse £1,000,000 (2022) Winner: £500,000 Grand National 2023 Purple, yellow chevrons, armlets and star on cap Red, yellow cross of lorraine and armlets, red and dark blue striped cap Yellow and black check, yellow sleeves, yellow cap, black star Corach Rambler Vanillier Gaillard Du Mesnil Previous years 2020-2011 2010-2001 2000–1991 1990–1981 1980–1971 1970–1961 1960–1951 1950–1946 The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race held annually at Aintree Racecourse, Aintree, Merseyside, England. First run in 1839, it is a handicap steeplechase over an official distance of about 4 miles and 2½ furlongs (4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km)), with horses jumping 30 fences over two laps.[1] It is the most valuable jump race in Europe, with a prize fund of £1 million in 2017.[2] An event that is prominent in British culture, the race is popular amongst many people who do not normally watch or bet on horse racing at other times of the year.[3] The course over which the race is run features much larger fences than those found on conventional National Hunt tracks. Many of these fences, particularly Becher's Brook, The Chair and the Canal Turn, have become famous in their own right and, combined with the distance of the event, create what has been called "the ultimate test of horse and rider".[4][5] The Grand National has been broadcast live on free-to-air terrestrial television in the United Kingdom since 1960. From then until 2012 it was broadcast by the BBC. Channel 4 broadcast the event between 2013 and 2016: UK broadcasting rights were transferred to ITV from 2017.[6] An estimated 500 to 600 million people watch the Grand National in over 140 countries.[6][7][8] The race has also been broadcast on radio since 1927; BBC Radio held exclusive rights until 2013. Talksport acquired radio commentary rights in 2014:[9] Both the BBC and Talksport currently broadcast the race in full. The most recent running of the race, in 2023, was won by Corach Rambler. Since 2017, the race and accompanying festival have been sponsored by Randox.[10] History Founding and early Nationals (1829–1850) 1890 engraving of horses jumping the famous Becher's Brook fence in the Grand National. External videos video icon A television item on the history of the Grand National, broadcast in 1969 (British Pathé) The Grand National was founded by William Lynn, a syndicate head and proprietor of the Waterloo Hotel, on land he leased in Aintree from William Molyneux, 2nd Earl of Sefton.[11][12][13] Lynn set out a course, built a grandstand, and Lord Sefton laid the foundation stone on 7 February 1829.[13] There is much debate regarding the first official Grand National; most leading published historians, including John Pinfold, now prefer the idea that the first running was in 1836 and was won by The Duke.[14] This same horse won again in 1837,[15] while Sir William was the winner in 1838.[16] These races have long been disregarded because of the belief that they took place at Maghull and not Aintree. However, some historians have unearthed evidence in recent years that suggests those three races were run over the same course at Aintree and were regarded as having been Grand Nationals up until the mid-1860s.[14] Contemporary newspaper reports place all the 1836–38 races at Aintree although the 1839 race is the first described as "national".[17] However, calls for the Nationals of 1836–1838 to be restored to the record books have been unsuccessful. In 1838 and 1839 three significant events occurred to transform the race from a small local affair to a national event. Firstly, the Great St. Albans Chase, which had clashed with the steeplechase at Aintree, was not renewed after 1838,[18] leaving a major hole in the chasing calendar. Secondly, the railway, opened from Manchester to Liverpool in 1830, was linked to a line from London and Birmingham in 1839 enabling rail transport to the Liverpool area from large parts of the country for the first time. Finally, a committee was formed to better organise the event.[19] These factors led to a more highly publicised race in 1839 which attracted a larger field of top quality horses and riders, greater press coverage, and increased attendance on race day. Over time the first three runnings of the event were quickly forgotten to secure the 1839 race its place in history as the first official Grand National. The 1839 race was won by rider Jem Mason on the aptly named, Lottery.[16][20][21] The Duke was ridden by Martin Becher. The fence Becher's Brook is named after him and is where he fell in the race.[22] By the 1840s, Lynn's ill-health blunted his enthusiasm for Aintree. Edward Topham, a respected handicapper and prominent member of Lynn's syndicate, began to exert greater influence over the National. He turned the chase into a handicap in 1843[20] after it had been a weight-for-age race for the first four years, and took over the land lease in 1848. One century later, the Topham family bought the course outright.[13] Later in the century, the race was the setting of a thriller by the popular novelist Henry Hawley Smart.[23] War National Steeplechase (1916–1918) For three years during the First World War, while Aintree Racecourse was taken over by the War Office, an alternative race was run at Gatwick Racecourse, a now disused course on land now occupied by Gatwick Airport. The first of these races, in 1916, was called the Racecourse Association Steeplechase, and in 1917 and 1918 the race was called the War National Steeplechase. The races at Gatwick are not always recognised as "Grand Nationals" and their results are often omitted from winners' lists.[24] Tipperary Tim (1928) On the day of the 1928 Grand National, before the race had begun, Tipperary Tim's jockey William Dutton heard a friend call out to him: "Billy boy, you'll only win if all the others fall down!"[25] These words turned out to be true, as 41 of the 42 starters fell during the race.[25] That year's National was run during misty weather conditions with the going very heavy.[26] As the field approached the Canal Turn on the first circuit, Easter Hero fell, causing a pile-up from which only seven horses emerged with seated jockeys. By the penultimate fence, this number had reduced to three, with Great Span looking most likely to win ahead of Billy Barton and Tipperary Tim. Great Span's saddle then slipped, leaving Billy Barton in the lead until he too then fell. Although Billy Barton's jockey Tommy Cullinan[27] managed to remount and complete the race, it was Tipperary Tim who came in first at outside odds of 100/1. With only two riders completing the course, this remains a record for the lowest number of finishers.[28] Second World War and the 1950s Although the Grand National was run as normal in 1940 and most other major horse races around the world were able to be held throughout the war, the commandeering of Aintree Racecourse for defence use in 1941 meant no Grand National could be held from 1941 to 1945.[29] It recommenced in 1946, when it was run on a Friday, and from 1947 was moved to a Saturday, at the urging of the Home Secretary James Chuter Ede,[30] who thought this would make it more accessible to working people. It has normally been run on a Saturday ever since. During the 1950s the Grand National was dominated by Vincent O'Brien, who trained different winners of the race for three consecutive years between 1953 and 1955. Early Mist secured O'Brien's first victory in 1953; Royal Tan won in 1954, and Quare Times completed the Irish trainer's hat-trick in 1955.[31] Oh, that's racing! The Queen Mother on Devon Loch's collapse moments from certain victory The running of the 1956 Grand National witnessed one of the chase's most bizarre incidents. Devon Loch, owned by Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother, had cleared the final fence in the leading position, five lengths clear of E.S.B. Forty yards from what seemed like certain victory, Devon Loch suddenly, and inexplicably, half-jumped into the air and collapsed in a belly-flop on the turf. Despite efforts by jockey Dick Francis, Devon Loch was unable to complete the race, leaving E.S.B. to cross the finishing line first. Responding to the commiserations of E.S.B.’s owner, the Queen Mother famously commented: "Oh, that's racing!"[32] Had Devon Loch completed the race he might have set a new record for the fastest finishing time, which E.S.B. missed by only four-fifths of a second. Many explanations have been offered for Devon Loch's behaviour on the run-in, but the incident remains inexplicable.[33] The incident became part of the folklore of the event, and by extension British sporting culture. In modern language, the phrase "to do a Devon Loch" is often used to describe a last-minute failure to achieve an expected victory.[34] Foinavon (1967) Rutherfords has been hampered, and so has Castle Falls; Rondetto has fallen, Princeful has fallen, Norther has fallen, Kirtle Lad has fallen, The Fossa has fallen, there's a right pile-up... And now, with all this mayhem, Foinavon has gone off on his own! He's about 50, 100 yards in front of everything else! Commentator Michael O'Hehir describes the chaotic scene at the 23rd fence in 1967 In the 1967 Grand National, most of the field were hampered or dismounted in a mêlée at the 23rd fence, allowing a rank-outsider, Foinavon, to become a surprise winner at odds of 100/1. A loose horse named Popham Down, who had unseated his rider at the first jump, suddenly veered across the leading group at the 23rd, causing them to either stop, refuse or unseat their riders. Racing journalist Lord Oaksey described the resulting pile-up by saying that Popham Down had "cut down the leaders like a row of thistles".[35] Some horses even started running in the wrong direction, back the way they had come. Foinavon, whose owner had such little faith in him that he had travelled to Worcester that day instead,[36] had been lagging some 100 yards behind the leading pack, giving his jockey, John Buckingham, time to steer his mount wide of the havoc and make a clean jump of the fence on the outside. Although 17 jockeys remounted and some made up considerable ground, particularly Josh Gifford on 15/2 favourite Honey End, none had time to catch Foinavon before he crossed the finishing line. The 7th/23rd fence was officially named the 'Foinavon fence' in 1984.[32][37] 1970s and Red Rum The 1970s were mixed years for the Grand National. In 1973, eight years after Mrs. Mirabel Topham announced she was seeking a buyer, the racecourse was finally sold to property developer Bill Davies. Davies tripled the admission prices, and consequently, the attendance at the 1975 race, won by L'Escargot, was the smallest in living memory. It was after this that bookmaker Ladbrokes made an offer, signing an agreement with Davies allowing them to manage the Grand National.[38] They're willing him home now! The 12-year-old Red Rum, being preceded only by loose horses, being chased by Churchtown Boy... They're coming to the elbow, just a furlong now between Red Rum and his third Grand National triumph! It's hats off and a tremendous reception, you've never heard one like it at Liverpool... and Red Rum wins the National! Commentator Peter O'Sullevan describes Red Rum's record third Grand National win in 1977 During this period, Red Rum was breaking all records to become the most successful racehorse in Grand National history. Originally bought as a yearling in 1966 for 400 guineas (£420),[39] he passed through various training yards before being bought for 6,000 guineas (£6,300) by Ginger McCain on behalf of Noel le Mare.[39] Two days after the purchase while trotting the horse on Southport beach, McCain noticed that Red Rum appeared lame.[40] The horse was suffering from pedal osteitis, an inflammatory bone disorder.[41] McCain had witnessed many lame carthorses reconditioned by being galloped in sea-water.[42] He successfully used this treatment on his newly acquired racehorse.[39] Red Rum became, and remains as of 2018, the only horse to have won the Grand National three times, in 1973, 1974, and 1977. He also finished second in the two intervening years, 1975 and 1976.[43] In 1973, he was in second place at the last fence, 15 lengths behind champion horse Crisp, who was carrying 23 lbs more. Red Rum made up the ground on the run-in and, two strides from the finishing post, he pipped the tiring Crisp to win by three-quarters of a length in what is arguably the most memorable Grand National of all time. Red Rum finished in 9 minutes 1.9 seconds, taking 18.3 seconds off the previous record for the National which had been set in 1935 by Reynoldstown.[32] His record was to stand for the next seventeen years.[32] Bob Champion's National (1981) Main article: 1981 Grand National Two years before the 1981 Grand National, jockey Bob Champion had been diagnosed with testicular cancer and given only months to live by doctors. But by 1981 he had recovered and was passed fit to ride in the Grand National. He rode Aldaniti, a horse deprived in its youth and which had only recently recovered from chronic leg problems.[44] Despite a poor start, the pair went on to win 4+1⁄2 lengths ahead of the much-fancied Spartan Missile, ridden by amateur jockey and 54-year-old grandfather John Thorne.[45] Champion and Aldaniti were instantly propelled to celebrity status, and within two years, their story had been re-created in the film Champions, starring John Hurt.[46] Seagram's sponsorship (1984–1991) From 1984 to 1991, Seagram sponsored the Grand National. The Canadian distiller provided a solid foundation on which the race's revival could be built, firstly enabling the course to be bought from Davies and to be run and managed by the Jockey Club. It is said that Ivan Straker, Seagram's UK chairman, became interested in the potential opportunity after reading a passionate newspaper article written by journalist Lord Oaksey, who, in his riding days, had come within three-quarters of a length of winning the 1963 National.[13] The last Seagram-sponsored Grand National was in 1991. Coincidentally, the race was won by a horse named Seagram. Martell, then a Seagram subsidiary, took over sponsorship of the Aintree meeting for an initial seven years from 1992, in a £4 million deal.[13] The race that never was (1993) Main article: 1993 Grand National The result of the 1993 Grand National was declared void after a series of incidents commentator Peter O'Sullevan later called "the greatest disaster in the history of the Grand National." While under starter's orders, one jockey was tangled in the starting tape which had failed to rise correctly. A false start was declared, but due to a lack of communication between course officials, 30 of the 39 jockeys did not realise this and began the race. Course officials tried to stop the runners by waving red flags, but many jockeys continued to race, believing that they were protesters (a group of whom had invaded the course earlier), while Peter Scudamore only stopped because he saw his trainer, Martin Pipe, waving frantically at him. Seven horses completed the course, meaning the result was void. The first past the post was Esha Ness (in the second-fastest time ever), ridden by John White, trained by Jenny Pitman and owned by Patrick Bancroft.[47][48][49][50] The Monday National (1997) Main article: 1997 Grand National The 1997 Grand National was postponed after two coded bomb threats were received from the Provisional Irish Republican Army. The course was secured by police who then evacuated jockeys, race personnel, and local residents along with 60,000 spectators. Cars and coaches were locked in the course grounds, leaving some 20,000 people without their vehicles over the weekend. With limited accommodation available in the city, local residents opened their doors and took in many of those stranded. This prompted tabloid headlines such as "We'll fight them on the Becher's", in reference to Winston Churchill's war-time speech.[51] The race was run 48 hours later on the Monday, with the meeting organisers offering 20,000 tickets with free admission.[52][53] Recent history (2004–present) Ballabriggs, the winner of the 2011 Grand National. Red Rum's trainer Ginger McCain returned to the Grand National in 2004, 31 years after Red Rum's epic run-in defeat of Crisp to secure his first of three wins. McCain's Amberleigh House came home first, ridden by Graham Lee, overtaking Clan Royal on the final straight. Hedgehunter, who would go on to win in 2005, fell at the last while leading. McCain had equalled George Dockeray and Fred Rimell's record feat of training four Grand National winners.[54] In 2005 John Smith's took over from Martell as main sponsors of the Grand National and many of the other races at the three-day Aintree meeting for the first time.[13] In 2006 John Smith's launched the John Smith's People's Race which gave ten members of the public the chance to ride in a flat race at Aintree on Grand National day.[55] In total, thirty members of the public took part in the event before it was discontinued in 2010. In 2009, Mon Mome became the longest-priced winner of the National for 42 years when he defied outside odds of 100/1 to win by 12 lengths. The victory was also the first for trainer Venetia Williams, the first female trainer to triumph since Jenny Pitman in 1995. The race was also the first National ride for Liam Treadwell.[56] In 2010 the National became the first horse race to be televised in high-definition in the UK.[57] In August 2013 Crabbie's was announced as the new sponsor of the Grand National. The three-year deal between the alcoholic ginger beer producer and Aintree saw the race run for a record purse of £1 million in 2014.[58] In March 2016 it was announced that Randox Health would take over from Crabbie's as official partners of the Grand National festival from 2017, for at least five years. [59] The sponsorship award was controversial as Aintree's chairwoman, Rose Paterson, was married to Owen Paterson, a Member of Parliament (MP) who also earns a £50,000 annual fee as a consultant for Randox.[60] The 2020 race was not run owing to the coronavirus pandemic; in its place, a virtual race was produced using CGI technology and based on algorithms of the 40 horses most likely to have competed. The virtual race was won by Potters Corner, winner of the 2019 Welsh Grand National.[61] (Another computer-generated virtual race was made also, whose runners were many horses who had won the Grand National in past years, each shown with its performance as at its racing prime. Its winner was Red Rum by less than a length, having just passed Manifesto.) In December 2020 Randox Health announced they had extended their sponsorship for a further 5 years which will make them sponsors to 2026.[62] In 2021, Rachael Blackmore became the first female jockey to win the race, on the horse Minella Times. In 2023, the race was disrupted by the Animal Rising protests, the first such disruptions since the cancellation of the 1993 Grand National due to a series of false starts and the 1997 Grand National due to the IRA bomb threat. The course The Grand National is run over the National Course at Aintree and consists of two laps of 16 fences, the first 14 of which are jumped twice. Horses completing the race cover a distance of 4 miles 514 yards (6.907 km), the longest of any National Hunt race in Britain. As part of a review of safety following the 2012 running of the event, from 2013 to 2015 the start was moved 90 yards (82 m) forward away from the crowds and grandstands, reducing the race distance by 110 yards (100 m) from the historical 4 miles 856 yards (7.220 km).[63] The course has one of the longest run-ins from the final fence of any steeplechase, at 494 yards (452 m). A map of the National Course at Aintree The Grand National was designed as a cross-country steeplechase when it was first officially run in 1839. The runners started at a lane on the edge of the racecourse and raced away from the course out over open countryside towards the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. The gates, hedges, and ditches that they met along the way were flagged to provide them with the obstacles to be jumped along the way with posts and rails erected at the two points where the runners jumped a brook. The runners returned towards the racecourse by running along the edge of the canal before re-entering the course at the opposite end. The runners then ran the length of the racecourse before embarking on a second circuit before finishing in front of the stands. The majority of the race, therefore, took place not on the actual Aintree Racecourse but instead in the adjoining countryside. That countryside was incorporated into the modern course but commentators still often refer to it as "the country".[citation needed] Fences There are 16 fences on the National Course topped with spruce from the Lake District. The cores of 12 fences were rebuilt in 2012 and they are now made of a flexible plastic material which is more forgiving than the traditional wooden core fences. They are still topped with at least 14 inches (36 cm) of spruce for the horses to knock off. Some of the jumps carry names from the history of the race. All 16 are jumped on the first lap, but on the final lap, the runners bear to the right onto the run-in for home, avoiding The Chair and the Water Jump. The following is a summary of all 16 fences on the course:[64][65][66][67] Fence 1 & 17 Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) Often met at great speed, which can lead to several falls, the highest being 12 runners in 1951. The drop on the landing side was reduced after the 2011 Grand National. It was bypassed in both 2019 and 2023 on the final lap, after equine casualties.[68] Fence 2 & 18 Height: 4 feet 7 inches (1.40 m) Before 1888 the first two fences were located approximately halfway between the first to second and second to third jumps. The second became known as The Fan, after a mare who refused the obstacle three years in succession. The name fell out of favour with the relocation of the fences. Fence 3 & 19 – open ditch Height: 4 feet 10 inches (1.47 m); fronted by a 6 feet (1.83 m) ditch The first big test in the race as horses are still adapting to the obstacles. In 2022, the race was shortened to 29 fences by bypassing this fence following a fatality. Fence 4 & 20 Height: 4 feet 10 inches (1.47 m) A testing obstacle that often leads to falls and unseated riders. In 2011 the 20th became the first fence in Grand National history to be bypassed on the final lap, following an equine fatality. Fence 5 & 21 Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) A plain obstacle which precedes the most famous fence on the course. It was bypassed on the final lap for the first time in 2012 so that medics could treat a jockey who fell from his mount on the first lap and had broken a leg. Fence 6 & 22 – Becher's Brook Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with the landing side 6 inches (15 cm) to 10 inches (25 cm) lower than the takeoff side[69] The drop at this fence often catches runners by surprise. Becher's has always been a popular vantage point as it can present one of the most spectacular displays of jumping when the horse and rider meet the fence right. Jockeys must sit back in their saddles and use their body weight as ballast to counter the steep drop. It takes its name from Captain Martin Becher who fell there in the first Grand National and took shelter in the small brook running along the landing side of the fence while the remainder of the field thundered over. It is said that Becher later reflected: "Water tastes disgusting without the benefits of whisky." It was bypassed in 2011 along with fence 20, after an equine casualty, and again in 2018 after a jockey was attended by doctors, both occurring on the final lap.[70] Fence 7 & 23 – Foinavon Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) One of the smallest on the course, it was named in 1984 after the 1967 winner who avoided a mêlée at the fence to go on and win the race at outside odds of 100/1. Fence 8 & 24 – Canal Turn Height: 5 ft (1.52 m) Noted for its sharp 90-degree left turn immediately after landing. Before the First World War it was not uncommon for loose horses to continue straight ahead after the jump and end up in the Leeds and Liverpool Canal itself. There was once a ditch before the fence but this was filled in after a mêlée in the 1928 race. It was bypassed for the first time in 2015 on the final lap as vets arrived to treat a horse who fell on the first lap. Fence 9 & 25 – Valentine's Brook Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) with a 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 m) brook The fence was originally known as the Second Brook but was renamed after a horse named Valentine was reputed to have jumped the fence hind legs first in 1840. A grandstand was erected alongside the fence in the early part of the 20th century but fell into decline after the Second World War and was torn down in the 1970s. Fence 10 & 26 Height: 5 feet (1.52 m) A plain obstacle that leads the runners alongside the canal towards two ditches. Fence 11 & 27 – open ditch Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with a 6 feet (1.83 m) ditch on the takeoff side. This fence will be lowered by 2 inches from 2024.[71] Fence 12 & 28 – ditch Height: 5 feet (1.52 m), with a 5 feet 6 inches (1.68 m) ditch on the landing side The runners then cross the Melling Road near to the Anchor Bridge, a popular vantage point since the earliest days of the race. This also marks the point where the runners are said to be re-entering the "racecourse proper". In the early days of the race, it is thought there was an obstacle near this point known as the Table Jump, which may have resembled a bank similar to those still seen at Punchestown in Ireland. In the 1840s the Melling Road was also flanked by hedges and the runners had to jump into the road and then back out of it. Fence 13 & 29 Height: 4 feet 7 inches (1.40 m) A plain obstacle that comes at a point when the runners are usually in a good rhythm and thus rarely causes problems. Fence 14 & 30 Height: 4 feet 6 inches (1.37 m) The last fence on the final lap and which has often seen very tired horses fall. Despite some tired runners falling on the 30th and appearing injured, no horse deaths have occurred at the 30th fence to date. On the first lap of the race, runners continue around the course to negotiate two fences which are only jumped once: Fence 15 – The Chair Height: 5 feet 2 inches (1.57 m), preceded by a 6 ft (1.83 m) wide ditch This fence is the site of the accident that claimed the only human life in the National's history: in 1862, Joe Wynne fell here and died from his injuries, although a coroner's inquest revealed that the rider was in a gravely weakened condition through consumption.[72] This brought about the ditch on the take-off side of the fence in an effort to slow the horses on approach. The fence was the location where a distance judge sat in the earliest days of the race. On the second circuit, he would record the finishing order from his position and declare any horse that had not passed him before the previous runner passed the finishing post as "distanced", meaning a non-finisher. The practice was done away with in the 1850s, but the monument where the chair stood is still there. The ground on the landing side is six inches higher than on the takeoff side, creating the opposite effect to the drop at Becher's. The fence was originally known as the Monument Jump, but "The Chair" came into more frequent use in the 1930s. Today it is one of the most popular jumps on the course for spectators. Fence 16 – Water Jump Height: 2 feet 6 inches (0.76 m) Originally a stone wall in the very early Nationals. The Water Jump was one of the most popular jumps on the course, presenting a great jumping spectacle for those in the stands and was always a major feature in the newsreels' coverage of the race. As the newsreels made way for television in the 1960s, so, in turn, did the Water Jump fall under the shadow of its neighbour, The Chair, in popularity as an obstacle. On the final lap, after the 30th fence, the remaining runners bear right, avoiding The Chair and Water Jump, to head onto a "run-in" to the finishing post. The run-in is not perfectly straight: an "elbow" requires jockeys to make a slight right before finding themselves truly on the home straight. It is on this run-in—one of the longest in the United Kingdom at 494 yards (452 m)—that many potential winners have had victory snatched away, such as Devon Loch in 1956, Crisp in 1973, What's Up Boys in 2002 and Sunnyhillboy in 2012. Records Leading horse: Red Rum – 3 wins (1973, 1974, 1977)[20] Leading jockey: George Stevens – 5 wins (Freetrader, 1856; Emblem 1863; Emblematic, 1864; The Colonel, 1869, 1870)[20] Leading trainers: George Dockeray – 4 wins (Lottery, 1839; Jerry, 1840; Gaylad, 1842; Miss Mowbray, 1852) Fred Rimell – 4 wins (E.S.B., 1956; Nicolaus Silver, 1961; Gay Trip, 1970; Rag Trade, 1976)[20] Ginger McCain – 4 wins (Red Rum, 1973, 1974, 1977; Amberleigh House, 2004)[20] Leading owners: James Octavius Machell – 3 wins (Disturbance, 1873; Reugny, 1874; Regal, 1876) Sir Charles Assheton-Smith (previously Charles Duff) – 3 wins (Cloister, 1893, Jerry M, 1912, Covertcoat, 1913) Noel Le Mare – 3 wins (Red Rum, 1973, 1974, 1977) Trevor Hemmings – 3 wins (Hedgehunter, 2005; Ballabriggs, 2011, Many Clouds, 2015) Gigginstown House Stud – 3 wins (Rule The World, 2016; Tiger Roll, 2018, 2019) Fastest winning time: Mr Frisk (1990); 8:47.80[73] Slowest winning time: Lottery (1839); 14:53[74] Oldest winning horse: Peter Simple (1853); aged 15[20] Youngest winning horse: Alcibiade (1865), Regal (1876), Austerlitz (1877), Empress (1880), Lutteur III (1909); all aged five[20] Oldest winning jockey: Dick Saunders (1982); aged 48 Youngest winning jockey: Bruce Hobbs (1938); aged 17[20] Longest odds winner: Tipperary Tim (1928), Gregalach (1929), Caughoo (1947), Foinavon (1967), Mon Mome (2009); all 100/1[20] Shortest odds winner: Poethlyn (1919); 11/4[75] Largest field: 66 runners (1929)[20] Smallest field: 10 runners (1883)[20] Most horses to finish: 23 (1984)[20] Fewest horses to finish: 2 (1928)[20] Most rides in the race: 21 (Richard Johnson, 1997-2019) Most rides without winning: 21 (Richard Johnson, 1997-2019) Winners Main article: List of Grand National winners The following table lists the winners of the last ten Grand Nationals: Year Horse Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner(s) SP 2023 Corach Rambler 9 10-05 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell The Ramblers 8/1 F 2022 Noble Yeats 7 10-10 Sam Waley-Cohen Emmet Mullins Robert Waley-Cohen 50/1 2021 Minella Times 8 10-03 Rachael Blackmore Henry de Bromhead J. P. McManus 11/1 2019 Tiger Roll 9 11-05 Davy Russell Gordon Elliott Gigginstown House Stud 4/1 F 2018 Tiger Roll[76] 8 10–13 Davy Russell Gordon Elliott Gigginstown House Stud 10/1 2017 One For Arthur[77] 8 10–11 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell Two Golf Widows 14/1 2016 Rule The World[78] 9 10-07 David Mullins Mouse Morris Gigginstown House Stud 33/1 2015 Many Clouds[79] 8 11-09 Leighton Aspell Oliver Sherwood Trevor Hemmings 25/1 2014 Pineau de Re[80] 11 10-06 Leighton Aspell Richard Newland John Proven 25/1 2013 Auroras Encore[81] 11 10-03 Ryan Mania Sue Smith Douglas Pryde, Jim Beaumont & David P van der Hoeven 66/1 Jockeys When the concept of the Grand National was first envisaged it was designed as a race for gentlemen riders,[82] meaning men who were not paid to compete, and while this was written into the conditions of the early races many of the riders who weighed out for the 1839 race were professionals for hire. Throughout the Victorian era the line between the amateur and professional sportsman existed only in terms of the rider's status, and the engagement of an amateur to ride in the race was rarely considered a handicap to a contender's chances of winning. Many gentleman riders won the race before the First World War.[83] Although the number of amateurs remained high between the wars their ability to match their professional counterparts gradually receded. After the Second World War, it became rare for any more than four or five amateurs to take part in any given year. The last amateur rider to win the Grand National was Mr Sam Waley-Cohen in 2022 on Noble Yeats. The penultimate amateur to win the race is Marcus Armytage, who set the still-standing course record of 8:47.80, when winning on Mr Frisk in 1990. By the 21st century, however, openings for amateur riders had become very rare with some years passing with no amateur riders at all taking part. Those that do in the modern era are most usually talented young riders who are often close to turning professional. In the past, such amateur riders would have been joined by army officers, such as David Campbell who won in 1896, and sporting aristocrats, farmers or local huntsmen and point to point riders, who usually opted to ride their own mounts. But all these genres of rider have faded out in the last quarter of a century with no riders of military rank or aristocratic title having taken a mount since 1982. The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 made it possible for female jockeys to enter the race. The first female jockey to enter the race was Charlotte Brew on the 200/1 outsider Barony Fort in the 1977 race.[84] The first female jockey to complete the race was Geraldine Rees on Cheers in 1982. The 21st century has not seen a significant increase in female riders but it has seen them gain rides on mounts considered to have a genuine chance of winning. In 2005, Carrie Ford finished fifth on the 8/1 second-favourite Forest Gunner. In 2012, Katie Walsh achieved what was at the time the best result yet for a female jockey, finishing third on the 8/1 joint-favourite Seabass. In 2015, Nina Carberry became the first female jockey to take a fifth ride in the Grand National, her best placing being seventh in 2010.[85] Rachael Blackmore became the first female jockey to win the Grand National aboard Minella Times in 2021. Professionals now hold dominance in the Grand National and better training, dietary habits and protective clothing have ensured that riders' careers last much longer and offer more opportunities to ride in the race. Of the 34 riders who have enjoyed 13 or more rides in the race, 19 had their first ride in the 20th century and 11 had careers that continued into or started in the 21st century.[citation needed] Despite that, a long-standing record of 19 rides in the race was set by Tom Olliver back in 1859 and was not equalled until 2014 by A. P. McCoy.[86] This has since been topped by Richard Johnson. Longevity is no guarantee of success, however, as 13 of the 34 never tasted the glory of winning the race. McCoy is the only rider to successfully remove himself from the list after winning at the 15th attempt in 2010. Richard Johnson set a new record of 21 failed attempts to win the race from 1997 to 2019, having finished second twice. The other 13 riders who never won or have not as yet won, having had more than 12 rides in the race are: Tom Scudamore (2001–2022): never in first three in 20 attempts Noel Fehily (2001–2017): never in first three in 15 attempts David Casey (1997–2015): finished third once in 15 attempts Jeff King (1964–1980): finished third once in 15 attempts[87] Graham Bradley (1983–1999): finished second once in 14 attempts Bill Parvin (1926–1939): finished second once in 14 attempts Robert Thornton (1997–2011): never in first three in 14 attempts Andrew Thornton (1996–2016): never in first three in 14 attempts Chris Grant (1980–1994): finished second thrice in 13 attempts Stan Mellor (1956–1971): finished second once in 13 attempts George Waddington (1861–1882): finished second once in 13 attempts Walter White (1854–1869): finished second once in 13 attempts David Nicholson (1957–1973): never in first three in 13 attempts Peter Scudamore technically lined up for thirteen Grand Nationals without winning but the last of those was the void race of 1993, which meant that he officially competed in twelve Nationals.[88] Many other well-known jockeys have failed to win the Grand National. These include champion jockeys such as Terry Biddlecombe, John Francome, Josh Gifford, Stan Mellor, Jonjo O'Neill (who never finished the race) and Fred Rimell.[89] Three jockeys who led over the last fence in the National but lost the race on the run-in ended up as television commentators: Lord Oaksey (on Carrickbeg in 1963), Norman Williamson (on Mely Moss in 2000), and Richard Pitman (on Crisp in 1973). Dick Francis also never won the Grand National in 8 attempts although he did lead over the last fence on Devon Loch in the 1956 race, only for the horse to collapse under him when well in front only 40 yards from the winning post. Pitman's son Mark also led over the last fence, only to be pipped at the post when riding Garrison Savannah in 1991. David Dick won the 1956 Grand National on E.S.B. when Devon Loch collapsed and he also holds the record for the number of clear rounds – nine times. Since 1986, any jockey making five or more clear rounds has been awarded the Aintree Clear Rounds Award.[90] Horse welfare Statistics The Grand National has been described by the BBC as higher risk than lots of other horse races.[91] According to the British Horseracing Authority, as of 2022, the five-year average fatality rate for jump racing was 0.43%.[92] However, the rate for the Grand National over the last ten runnings was more than twice as high, at 1.12%[93] History of fatalities Main article: List of equine fatalities in the Grand National During the 1970s and 1980s, the Grand National saw a total of 12 horses die (half of which were at Becher's Brook); in the next 20-year period from 1990 to 2010, when modifications to the course were most significant, there were 17 equine fatalities. The 2011 and 2012 races each yielded two deaths, including one each at Becher's Brook. In 2013, when further changes were made to introduce a more flexible fence structure, there were no fatalities in the race itself although two horses died in run-up races over the same course.[94][95][96] The animal welfare charity League Against Cruel Sports counts the number of horse deaths over the three-day meeting from the year 2000 to 2013 at 40.[95] There were no equine fatalities in the main Grand National race for seven years until 2019,[97] when one horse died at the first fence.[98] In 2021, one horse was euthanised after the race after suffering an injury on a flat section between fences.[99] Two more were euthanised after suffering injuries in the 2022 event. One of the incidents came at fence 3, the other on the gallop between fences 12 and 13.[100] There was one fatality in 2023, following a fall at the first fence, and two other horses taken away by ambulance.[101] [102] The involvement of animal rights protesters was questioned after the race. Sandy Thompson, trainer of the fatally injured Hill Sixteen, claimed along with several other racing personalities that the protesters had (directly or in-directly) caused the death of the gelding and were equally responsible for the number of fallers, because the delay they caused to the start, after storming the course close to post time, got the horses worked up and "hyper".[103] The protesters have denied these comments, saying they had every right to break and enter and trespass onto racecourse ground and stage a protest despite officials' orders not to.[103] Organiser changes Over the years, Aintree officials have worked in conjunction with animal welfare organisations to reduce the severity of some fences and to improve veterinary facilities. In 2008, a new veterinary surgery was constructed in the stable yard which has two large treatment boxes, an X-ray unit, video endoscopy, equine solarium, and sandpit facilities. Further changes in set-up and procedure allow vets to treat horses more rapidly and in better surroundings. Those requiring more specialist care can be transported by specialist horse ambulances, under police escort, to the nearby Philip Leverhulme Equine Hospital at the University of Liverpool at Leahurst. A mobile on-course X-ray machine assists in the prompt diagnosis of leg injuries when horses are pulled up, and oxygen and water are available by the final fence and finishing post.[104][105][106] Five vets remain mobile on the course during the running of the race and can initiate treatment of injured fallers at the fence. Additional vets are stationed at the pull-up area, finishing post, and in the surgery.[106] Some of the National's most challenging fences have also been modified, while still preserving them as formidable obstacles. After the 1989 Grand National, in which two horses died in incidents at Becher's Brook, Aintree began the most significant of its modifications to the course. The brook on the landing side of Becher's was filled in and, after the 2011 race which also saw an equine fatality at the obstacle, the incline on the landing side was levelled out and the drop on was reduced by between 4 and 5 inches (10–13 cm) to slow the runners. Other fences have also been reduced in height over the years, and the entry requirements for the race have been made stricter. Screening at the Canal Turn now prevents horses from being able to see the sharp left turn and encourages jockeys to spread out along the fence, rather than take the tight left-side route. Additionally, work has been carried out to smooth the core post infrastructure of the fences with protective padding to reduce impact upon contact,[104] and the height of the toe-boards on all fences has been increased to 14 inches (36 cm). These orange-coloured boards are positioned at the base of each fence and provide a clear ground line to assist horses in determining the base of the fence. Parts of the course were widened in 2009 to allow runners to bypass fences if required. This was utilised for the first time during the 2011 race as casualties at fences 4 and 6 (Becher's Brook) resulted in marshals diverting the remaining contenders around those fences on the final lap. Some within the horseracing community, including those with notable achievements in the Grand National such as Ginger McCain and Bob Champion,[107][108][109] have argued that the lowering of fences and the narrowing of ditches, primarily designed to increase horse safety, has made matters worse by encouraging the runners to race faster. After the 2023 race, the Jockey Club announced several major changes to the event for 2024, recognising "the need for more substantial updates on several key areas in order to better protect the welfare of racehorses and jockeys".[110] This included a reduction in the size of the field for the first time, from 40 to 34 (long called for by welfare campaigners such as the RSPCA),[111] as well as infrastructure changes such as moving fences to slow the speed of the race at the start, and further development of pre-race veterinary protocols. Grand National Legends In 2009, the race sponsors John Smith's launched a poll to determine five personalities to be inducted into the inaugural Grand National Legends initiative.[112] The winners were announced on the day of the 2010 Grand National and inscribed on commemorative plaques at Aintree. They were:[112] Ginger McCain and his record three-time winning horse Red Rum; John Buckingham and Foinavon, the unlikely winners in 1967; Manifesto, who holds the record for most runs in the race, eight including two victories; Jenny Pitman, the first woman to train the winner of the race in 1983; and Sir Peter O'Sullevan, the commentator who called home the winners of fifty Grand Nationals on radio and television from 1947 to 1997. A panel of experts also selected three additional legends:[112] George Stevens, the record five-time winning rider between 1856 and 1870; Captain Martin Becher, who played a major part in bringing the National to Liverpool, rode the winner of the first precursor to the National in 1836 and was the first rider to fall into the brook at the sixth fence, which forever took his name after 1839; and Edward Topham, who was assigned the task of framing the weights for the handicap from 1847 and whose descendants played a major role in the race for the next 125 years. In 2011, nine additional legends were added:[112] Bob Champion and Aldaniti, the winners of the 1981 Grand National; West Tip, who ran in six consecutive Nationals and won once in 1986; Richard Dunwoody, the jockey who rode West Tip and Miinnehoma to victory and who competed in 14 Grand Nationals, being placed in eight; Brian Fletcher, a jockey who won the race three times (including Red Rum's first victory in 1973, and finished second once and third three times); Vincent O'Brien, who trained three consecutive winners of the race in the 1950s; Tom Olliver, who rode in nineteen Nationals, including seventeen consecutively, and won three times, as well as finishing second three times and third once; Count Karl Kinsky, the first international winner of the race, and at his first attempt, on board the mare Zoedone in 1883; Jack Anthony, three-time winning jockey in 1911, 1915 and 1920; and Peter Bromley, the BBC radio commentator who covered 42 Nationals until his retirement in the summer of 2001. John Smith's also added five "people's legends" who were introduced on Liverpool Day, the first day of the Grand National meeting. The five were:[113] Arthur Ferrie, who worked as a groundsman during the 1970s and 1980s; Edie Roche, a Melling Road resident, who opened her home to jockeys, spectators and members of the media when the course was evacuated following a bomb threat in 1997; Ian Stewart, a fan who had travelled from Coventry every year to watch the race and was attending his fiftieth National in 2010; Police Constable Ken Lawson, who was celebrating thirty-one years of service in the mounted section of Merseyside Police and was set to escort his third National winner in 2010; and Tony Roberts, whose first visit to the National had been in 1948 and who had steadily spread the word to family and friends about the race, regularly bringing a party of up to thirty people to the course. A public vote announced at the 2012 Grand National saw five more additions to the Legends hall: Fred Winter, who rode two National winners and trained two more; Carl Llewellyn, jockey who won two Nationals, on Party Politics in 1992 and Earth Summit in 1998, the latter being the only horse to have won the Grand National and the Scottish and Welsh Nationals; Fred Rimell, the trainer of four different National winning horses, including Nicolaus Silver, one of only three greys to have won the race; Michael Scudamore, rider in sixteen consecutive Grand Nationals from 1951, finishing first in 1959 and also achieving a second and a third-place; Tommy Carberry, the jockey who stopped Red Rum's attempt at a third success in 1975 by winning on L'Escargot, also finished second and third before going on to train the winner in 1999. The selection panel also inducted three more competitors: Tommy Pickernell, who rode in seventeen Grand Nationals in the 19th century and won three. He allegedly turned down a substantial bribe during the 1860 race from the second-placed jockey and instead rode on to win; Battleship, the only horse to have won both the Grand National and the American Grand National, and his jockey Bruce Hobbs, who remains the youngest jockey to win the Aintree race; George Dockeray, who alongside Ginger McCain and Fred Rimell trained four National winners, starting with Lottery in the first official Grand National in 1839.[114] Sponsorship Period Sponsor Branding 1975–1977 News of the World News of the World Grand National 1978 The Sun The Sun Grand National 1979 Colt Car Company Colt Car Grand National 1980–1983 The Sun The Sun Grand National 1984–1991 Seagram Seagram Grand National 1992–2004 Martell Martell Grand National 2005–2013 John Smith's John Smith's Grand National 2014–2016 Crabbie's Crabbie's Grand National 2017–2026 Randox Health Randox Health Grand National (2017–2020) Randox Grand National (2021–present) Since 1984 it has been sponsored by 5 different companies.[115] [116] Notes Favourites In the 71 races of the post-war era (excluding the void race in 1993), the favourite or joint-favourite have only won the race eleven times (in 1950, 1960, 1973, 1982, 1996, 1998, 2005, 2008, 2010, 2019 and 2023) and have failed to complete the course in 37 Nationals.[117] Mares Since its inception, 13 mares have won the race, most recently in 1951:[20][118][119] Charity (1841) Miss Mowbray (1852) Anatis (1860) Jealousy (1861) Emblem (1863) Emblematic (1864) Casse Tete (1872) Empress (1880) Zoedone (1883) Frigate (1889) Shannon Lass (1902) Sheila's Cottage (1948) Nickel Coin (1951) Greys Three greys have won: The Lamb (1868, 1871)[20][119] Nicolaus Silver (1961)[20][119] Neptune Collonges (2012)[20][119] Female jockeys Main article: List of female Grand National jockeys Since 1977, women have ridden in 24 Grand Nationals. Geraldine Rees became the first to complete the course, on Cheers in 1982. In 2012 Katie Walsh became the first female jockey to earn a placed finish in the race, finishing third on Seabass. Rachael Blackmore became the first female jockey to win with Minella Times in 2021. International winners Battleship is the only horse to win both the American Grand National and the English Grand National steeplechase races France Two French-trained horses have won the Grand National: Huntsman (1862) and Cortolvin (1867). Six other winners were bred in France — Alcibiade (1865), Reugny (1874), Lutteur III (1909), Mon Mome (2009), Neptune Collonges (2012), and Pineau De Re (2014).[118] United States In 1923, Sergeant Murphy became the first U.S.-bred horse to win the race. He is also the joint-second oldest horse to win, at age 13, alongside Why Not (1884).[20] The U.S.-bred Battleship, son of the famous Man o' War, became the first (and so far only) horse to have won both the Grand National (in 1938) and the American Grand National (which he won four years earlier).[119] Both Jay Trump (1965) and Ben Nevis II (1980) won the Maryland Hunt Cup before winning the Grand National. Australia Jockey William Watkinson recorded the first riding success for Australia in 1926. He was killed at Bogside, Scotland, less than three weeks after winning the National.[119] New Zealand 1991 was the seventh and final year that the Grand National was sponsored by Seagram. Aptly, the race was won by a horse named Seagram, bred in New Zealand. 1997 saw another New Zealand-bred winner in Lord Gyllene. Austria Count Karl Kinsky recorded the first riding success for Austria when he won the 1883 Grand National while riding his own horse Zoedone. Other British winners Wales The only Welsh-trained horse to win was Kirkland in 1905.[20][119] Scotland Rubstic, trained by John Leadbetter in Roxburghshire, became the first Scottish-trained winner, with victory in 1979.[20][119] Two other horses trained in Scotland have won the race, One For Arthur in 2017 and Corach Rambler in 2023, both trained by Lucinda Russell.[120] Irish winners Republic of Ireland Irish-trained horses have enjoyed by far the most success of international participants, with 18 winners since 1900, including ten since 1999:[118] Year Horse Jockey Trainer SP 1900 Ambush II Algy Anthony Algy Anthony 4/1 1920 Troytown Mr. Jack Anthony Algy Anthony 6/1 1939 Workman Tim Hyde Jack Ruttle 100/8 1947 Caughoo Eddie Dempsey Herbie McDowell 100/1 1953 Early Mist Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien 20/1 1954 Royal Tan Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien 8/1 1955 Quare Times Pat Taaffe Vincent O'Brien 100/9 1975 L'Escargot Tommy Carberry Dan Moore 13/2 1999 Bobbyjo Paul Carberry Tommy Carberry 10/1 2000 Papillon Ruby Walsh Ted Walsh 10/1 2003 Monty's Pass Barry Geraghty Jimmy Mangan 16/1 2005 Hedgehunter Ruby Walsh Willie Mullins 7/1 F 2006 Numbersixvalverde Niall Madden Martin Brassil 11/1 2007 Silver Birch Robbie Power Gordon Elliott 33/1 2016 Rule The World David Mullins Mouse Morris 33/1 2018 Tiger Roll Davy Russell Gordon Elliott 10/1 2019 Tiger Roll Davy Russell Gordon Elliott 4/1 F 2021 Minella Times Rachael Blackmore Henry de Bromhead 11/1 2022 Noble Yeats Sam Waley-Cohen Emmet Mullins 50/1 Famous owners The 1900 winner Ambush II was owned by HRH Prince of Wales, later to become King Edward VII.[20] In 1950 Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother had her first runner in the race in Monaveen, who finished fifth.[20] Six years later she would witness her Devon Loch collapse on the run-in, just yards from a certain victory.[119] The favourite for the 1968 race, Different Class, was owned by actor Gregory Peck. The 1963 winner Ayala and the 1976 winner Rag Trade were both part-owned by celebrity hairdresser Raymond Bessone.[119] 1994 winner Miinnehoma was owned by comedian Freddie Starr.[119] What A Friend ran in 2011 and 2013 when part-owned by Alex Ferguson, the former manager of Manchester United. See also Horse racing in Great Britain List of British National Hunt races References Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 2019 Timeform: 2017 Archived 20 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine Notes British Racing and Racecourses (ISBN 978-0950139722) by Marion Rose Halpenny – Page 167 "Prize Money". Retrieved 18 October 2023. The Jockey Club and Aintree Racecourse "Official Grand National fences guide". Aintree Racecourse. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2013. Powell, Nick (6 April 2013). 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"BBC Sport – Horse Racing – Grand National: Ginger McCain queries smaller fences". BBC News. 10 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2012. "Grand National: Neptune Collonge Honoured After Horses Die Following Aintree Race | UK News | Sky News". Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. "BBC Sport – According to Pete trainer wants bigger Grand National fences". 16 April 2012. Archived from the original on 20 April 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012. "THE JOCKEY CLUB ANNOUNCES CHANGES TO THE RANDOX GRAND NATIONAL AS PART OF RELENTLESS FOCUS ON HORSE WELFARE". The Jockey Club. Retrieved 5 January 2024. Cook, Chris (8 April 2019). "RSPCA urges officials to consider cutting numbers in Grand National field". The Guardian. Retrieved 5 January 2024. "Grand National Legends through History | GrandNational.Org.UK". Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018. peopleslegend "thelegends". Archived from the original on 19 February 2010. Retrieved 14 April 2012. "History of Grand National Sponsors". Retrieved 14 April 2021. "Grand National Sponsors". Retrieved 14 April 2021. "Post War Favourites". Archived from the original on 30 November 2014. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 2009pages[dead link] "History of the Grand National – Timeline". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011. Keogh, Frank (15 April 2023). "Grand National 2023 result: Corach Rambler wins at Aintree after protest delay". BBC Sport. Retrieved 15 April 2023. Sources Winners 1886–present Aintree Grand National Archived 13 November 2007 at the Wayback Machine on Grand National – Aintree om The Grand National on Grand National Reviews on The Grand National Official Site on External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grand National. Aintree Grand National Stats and Trends Archived 7 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine BBC history of Grand National Film footage of the 1967 Grand National great pile up Archived 30 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine vte Grand National Races by year (1836)(1837)(1838)1839 (1916)(1917)(1918)1919 20202021202220232024 Course Aintree RacecourseBecher's BrookCanal TurnThe ChairValentine's Brook Famous horses AldanitiBattleshipCorbiereCrispDevon LochThe DukeE.S.B.FoinavonGolden MillerL'EscargotLord GylleneLotteryMr FriskParty PoliticsPeter SimpleRed RumTiger RollWest Tip Famous jockeys Duke of AlburquerqueJack AnthonyMartin BecherRachael BlackmoreTommy CarberryBob ChampionRichard DunwoodyBrian FletcherDick FrancisJosh GiffordBruce HobbsCount Karl KinskyJem MasonTony McCoyTom OlliverErnest PiggottRichard PitmanDavy RussellRuby WalshFred Winter Other people Peter BromleyGinger McCainVincent O'BrienMichael O'HehirPeter O'SullevanJenny PitmanFred RimellQueen Elizabeth The Queen MotherLord OakseyLord Sefton Lists List of Grand National winnersList of Grand National first four placingsList of equine fatalities in the Grand NationalList of female Grand National jockeys vte Grand National Meeting Aintree HurdleAnniversary 4-Y-O Novices' HurdleBetway BowlChampion Standard Open NH Flat RaceFoxhunters' Open Hunters' ChaseGrand NationalLiverpool HurdleMaghull Novices' ChaseManifesto Novices' ChaseMelling ChaseMersey Novices' HurdleMildmay Novices' ChaseNickel Coin Mares' Standard Open NH Flat RaceRed Rum Handicap ChaseSefton Novices' HurdleTop Novices' HurdleTopham ChaseVillage Hotels Handicap HurdleWilliam Hill Handicap ChaseWilliam Hill Handicap Hurdle Categories: Grand NationalNational Hunt races in Great BritainAintree RacecourseNational Hunt chasesSport in the Metropolitan Borough of SeftonTourist attractions in LiverpoolRecurring sporting events established in 1839Annual sporting events in the United Kingdom1839 establishments in EnglandApril sporting events List of Grand National winners Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Grand National is a National Hunt horse race which is held annually at Aintree Racecourse near Liverpool, England. It is a handicap steeplechase over 30 fences and a distance of approximately 4 miles 3½ furlongs. Unofficial winners Pre-1839 The first official running of the "Grand National" is now considered to be the 1839 Grand Liverpool Steeplechase. There had been a similar race for several years prior to this, but its status as an official Grand National was revoked some time between 1862 and 1873. Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner 1836 The Duke 7 Capt. Martin Becher Mr Sirdefield 1837 The Duke 8 Henry Potts Mr Sirdefield 1838 Sir William 7 12-07 Alan McDonough Mr Thompson 1916–18 For three years during World War I, the Grand National could not be run at Aintree, and so a substitute event was held at another racecourse, Gatwick. This venue is now defunct, and it is presently the site of London Gatwick Airport. The course was modified to make it similar to Aintree, and the races were contested over the same distance, with one fence fewer to be jumped. The 1916 running was titled the Racecourse Association Steeplechase and for the next two years it was known as the War National. Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner 1916 Vermouth 6 11-10 Jack Reardon J. Bell P. F. Heybourne 1917 Ballymacad 10 09-12 Edmund Driscoll Aubrey Hastings Sir George Bullough 1918 Poethlyn 8 11-06 Ernie Piggott Harry Escott Gwladys Peel Winners Year Winner Age Handicap (st-lb) Jockey Trainer Owner SP Winning time 1839 Lottery 9 12-00 Jem Mason George Dockeray John Elmore 5/1 F 14m 53.0s 1840 Jerry 10 12-00 Mr Bartholomew Bretherton George Dockeray Henry Villebois 12/1 12m 30.0s 1841 Charity 11 12-00 Mr A. Powell William Vevers Lord Craven 14/1 13m 25.0s 1842 Gaylad 8 12-00 Tom Olliver George Dockeray John Elmore 7/1 13m 30.0s 1843 Vanguard 8 11-10 Tom Olliver see note below [a] Lord Chesterfield 12/1 Not recorded 1844 Discount 6 10-12 Mr John Crickmere Not recorded Mr Quartermaine 5/1 JF 14m 0.0s 1845 Cure-All 7 11-05 Mr William Loft Kitty Crisp W. S. Crawford 10m 47.0s 1846 Pioneer 6 11-12 William Taylor Not trained [1] Mr Adams 10m 46.0s 1847 Mathew 9 10-06 Denny Wynne John Murphy John Courtenay 10/1 10m 39.0s 1848 Chandler 12 11-12 Capt. Josey Little[2] Tom Eskrett Josey Little 12/1 11m 21.0s 1849 Peter Simple 11 11-00 Tom Cunningham T. Cunningham Finch Mason, Jr. 20/1 10m 56.0s 1850 Abd-El-Kader 8 09-12 Chris Green Joseph Osborne Joseph Osborne 9m 57.5s 1851 Abd-El-Kader 9 10-04 Tom Abbott Joseph Osborne Joseph Osborne 7/1 9m 59.0s 1852 Miss Mowbray 7 10-04 Mr Alec Goodman George Dockeray T. F. Mason 9m 58.5s 1853 Peter Simple 15 10-10 Tom Olliver Tom Olliver Josey Little 9/1 10m 37.5s 1854 Bourton 11 11-12 John Tasker Henry Wadlow William Moseley 4/1 F 9m 59.0s 1855 Wanderer 10 09-08 John Hanlon Not known Mr Dunn 25/1 10m 25.0s 1856 Freetrader 7 09-06 George Stevens William Holman W. Barnett 25/1 10m 9.5s 1857 Emigrant 11 09-10 Charlie Boyce Charlie Boyce George Hodgman 10/1 10m 6.0s 1858 Little Charley 10 10-07 William Archer William Holman Christopher Capel 100/6 11m 5.0s 1859 Half Caste 6 09-07 Chris Green Chris Green Mr Willoughby 7/1 10m 2.0s 1860 Anatis 10 09-10 Mr Tommy Pickernell H. E. May Christopher Capel 7/2 F Not recorded 1861 Jealousy 7 09-12 Joseph Kendall Charles Balchin J. Bennett 5/1 10m 14.0s 1862 The Huntsman 9 11-00 Harry Lamplugh Harry Lamplugh Viscount de Namur 3/1 F 9m 30.0s 1863 Emblem 7 10-10 George Stevens Edwin Weever Lord Coventry 4/1 11m 20.0s 1864 Emblematic 6 10-06 George Stevens Edwin Weever Lord Coventry 10/1 11m 50.0s 1865 Alcibiade 5 11-04 Capt. Henry Coventry Cornell Cherry Angell 100/7 11m 16.0s 1866 Salamander 7 10-07 Mr Alec Goodman J. Walters Edward Studd 40/1 11m 5.0s 1867 Cortolvin 8 11-13 John Page Harry Lamplugh Duke of Hamilton 16/1 10m 42.0s 1868 The Lamb 6 10-07 Mr George Ede Ben Land Lord Poulett 9/1 Not recorded 1869 The Colonel 6 10-07 George Stevens R. Roberts John Weyman 100/7 11m 0.0s 1870 The Colonel 7 11-12 George Stevens R. Roberts Matthew Evans 7/2 F 10m 10.0s 1871 The Lamb 9 11-05 Mr Tommy Pickernell Chris Green Lord Poulett 11/2 9m 35.7s 1872 Casse Tete 7 10-00 John Page A. Cowley Teddy Brayley 20/1 10m 14.5s 1873 Disturbance 6 11-11 Mr J. M. Richardson James Machell James Machell 20/1 Watch stopped 1874 Reugny 6 10-12 Mr J. M. Richardson James Machell James Machell 5/1 F 10m 4.0s 1875 Pathfinder 8 10-11 Mr Tommy Pickernell W. Reeves Hubert Bird 100/6 10m 22.0s 1876 Regal 5 11-03 Joe Cannon James Jewitt James Machell 25/1 11m 14.0s 1877 Austerlitz 5 10-08 Mr Fred Hobson Robert I'Anson Fred Hobson 15/1 10m 10.0s 1878 Shifnal 9 10-12 J. Jones John Nightingall John Nightingall 7/1 10m 23.0s 1879 The Liberator 10 11-04 Mr Garrett Moore J. Moore Garrett Moore 5/1 10m 12.0s 1880 Empress 5 10-07 Mr Tommy Beasley Henry Linde Pierre Ducrot 8/1 10m 20.0s 1881 Woodbrook 7 11-03 Mr Tommy Beasley Henry Linde T. Kirkwood 11/2 JF 11m 50.0s 1882 Seaman 6 11-06 Lord Manners James Machell/James Jewitt Lord Manners 10/1 10m 42.4s 1883 Zoedone 6 11-00 Count Karel Kinsky (AUT) W. Jenkins Count Karel Kinsky 100/7 11m 39.0s 1884 Voluptuary 6 10-05 Mr Ted Wilson William Wilson H. F. Boyd 10/1 10m 5.0s 1885 Roquefort 6 11-00 Mr Ted Wilson Arthur Yates Arthur Cooper 10/3 F 10m 10.0s 1886 Old Joe 7 10-09 Tommy Skelton George Mulcaster A. J. Douglas 25/1 10m 14.6s 1887 Gameco*ck 8 11-00 Bill Daniels James Gordon E. Jay 20/1 10m 10.2s 1888 Playfair 7 10-07 George Mawson Tom Cannon, Sr. Ned Baird 40/1 10m 12.0s 1889 Frigate 11 11-04 Mr Tommy Beasley M. A. Maher Mat Maher 8/1 10m 1.2s 1890 Ilex 6 10-05 Arthur Nightingall John Nightingall George Masterman 4/1 F 10m 41.8s 1891 Come Away 7 11-12 Mr Harry Beasley Harry Beasley Willie Jameson 4/1 F 9m 58.0s 1892 Father O'Flynn 7 10-05 Capt. Roddy Owen Gordon Wilson Gordon Wilson 20/1 9m 48.2s 1893 Cloister 9 12-07 Bill Dollery Arthur Yates Charles Duff 9/2 F 9m 32.4s 1894 Why Not 13 11-13 Arthur Nightingall Willie Moore C. H. Fenwick 5/1 JF 9m 45.4s 1895 Wild Man From Borneo 7 10-11 Mr Joe Widger James Gatland John Widger 10/1 10m 32.0 1896 The Soarer 7 09-13 Lt. David Campbell Willie Moore William Hall Walker 40/1 10m 11.2s 1897 Manifesto 9 11-03 Terry Kavanagh Willie McAuliffe Harry Dyas 6/1 F 9m 49s 1898 Drogheda 6 10-12 John Gourley Dick Dawson C. G. M. Adams 25/1 9m 43.6s 1899 Manifesto 11 12-07 George Williamson Willie Moore John Bulteel 5/1 9m 49.8s 1900 Ambush II 6 11-03 Algy Anthony Algy Anthony Prince of Wales 4/1 10m 1.4s 1901 Grudon 11 10-00 Arthur Nightingall Bernard Bletsoe Bernard Bletsoe 9/1 9m 47.8s 1902 Shannon Lass 7 10-01 David Read James Hackett Ambrose Gorham 20/1 10m 3.6s 1903 Drumcree 9 11-03 Percy Woodland Sir Charles Nugent John Morrison 13/2 F 10m 9.4s 1904 Moifaa 8 10-07 Arthur Birch W. Hickey Spencer Gollan 25/1 9m 58.6s 1905 Kirkland 9 11-05 Frank Mason E. Thomas Frank Bibby 6/1 9m 48.8s 1906 Ascetic's Silver 9 10-09 Mr Aubrey Hastings Aubrey Hastings Prince F. Hatzfeldt 20/1 9m 34.4s 1907 Eremon 7 10-01 Alf Newey Tom Coulthwaite Stanley Howard 8/1 9m 47.5s 1908 Rubio 10 10-05 Henry Bletsoe Fred Withington F. Douglas-Pennant 66/1 10m 33.2s 1909 Lutteur III 5 10-11 Georges Parfrement Harry Escott James Hennessy 100/9 9m 53.8s 1910 Jenkinstown 9 10-05 Robert Chadwick Tom Coulthwaite Stanley Howard 100/8 10m 44.2s 1911 Glenside 9 10-03 Mr Jack Anthony R. H. Collis Frank Bibby 20/1 10m 35.0s 1912 Jerry M 9 12-07 Ernie Piggott Robert Gore Sir C. Assheton-Smith 4/1 JF 10m 13.4s 1913 Covertcoat 7 11-06 Percy Woodland Robert Gore Sir C. Assheton-Smith 100/9 10m 19.0s 1914 Sunloch 8 09-07 Bill Smith Tom Tyler Tom Tyler 100/6 9m 58.8s 1915 Ally Sloper 6 10-06 Mr Jack Anthony Aubrey Hastings Lady Margaret Nelson 100/8 9m 47.8s 1916–1918 No races held due to World War I 1919 Poethlyn 9 12-07 Ernie Piggott Harry Escott Gwladys Peel 11/4 F 10m 8.4s 1920 Troytown 7 11-09 Mr Jack Anthony Algy Anthony T. Collins-Gerrard 6/1 10m 20.4s 1921 Shaun Spadah 10 11-07 Fred Rees George Poole Malcolm McAlpine 100/9 10m 26.0s 1922 Music Hall 9 11-08 Lewis Rees Owen Anthony Hugh Kershaw 100/9 9m 55.8s 1923 Sergeant Murphy 13 11-03 Capt. Tuppy Bennett George Blackwell Stephen Sanford 100/6 9m 36.0s 1924 Master Robert 11 10-05 Bob Trudgill Aubrey Hastings Lord Airlie 25/1 9m 40.0s 1925 Double Chance 9 10-09 Maj. John Wilson Fred Archer, Jr. David Goold 100/9 9m 42.6s 1926 Jack Horner 9 10-05 William Watkinson Harvey Leader Charles Schwartz 25/1 9m 36.0s 1927 Sprig 10 12-04 Ted Leader Tom Leader Mary Partridge 8/1 F 10m 20.2s 1928 Tipperary Tim 10 10-00 Mr Bill Dutton Joseph Dodd Harold Kenyon 100/1 10m 23.4s 1929 Gregalach 7 11-04 Robert W H Everett Tom Leader Margaret Gemmell 100/1 9m 47.4s 1930 Shaun Goilin 10 11-07 Tommy Cullinan Frank Hartigan Walter Midwood 100/8 9m 40.6s 1931 Grakle 9 11-07 Bob Lyall Tom Coulthwaite Cecil Taylor 100/6 9m 32.8s 1932 Forbra 7 10-07 Tim Hamey Tom Rimell William Parsonage 50/1 9m 44.6s 1933 Kellsboro' Jack 7 11-09 Dudley Williams Ivor Anthony Mrs F. Ambrose Clark 25/1 9m 28.0s 1934 Golden Miller 7 12-02 Gerry Wilson Basil Briscoe Dorothy Paget 8/1 9m 20.4s 1935 Reynoldstown 8 11-04 Mr Frank Furlong Noel Furlong Noel Furlong 22/1 9m 20.2s 1936 Reynoldstown 9 12-02 Mr Fulke Walwyn Noel Furlong Noel Furlong 10/1 9m 37.8s 1937 Royal Mail 8 11-13 Evan Williams Ivor Anthony Hugh Lloyd Thomas 100/6 9m 59.8s 1938 Battleship 11 11-06 Bruce Hobbs Reg Hobbs Marion Scott 40/1 9m 27.0s 1939 Workman 9 10-06 Tim Hyde Jack Ruttle Sir Alexander Maguire 100/8 9m 42.2s 1940 Bogskar 7 10-04 Mervyn Jones Lord Stalbridge Lord Stalbridge 25/1 9m 20.6s 1941–1945 No races held due to World War II 1946 Lovely Cottage 9 10-08 Capt. Bobby Petre Tommy Rayson John Morant 25/1 9m 38.2s 1947 Caughoo 8 10-00 Eddie Dempsey Herbert McDowell John McDowell 100/1 10m 3.8s 1948 Sheila's Cottage 9 10-07 Arthur Thompson Neville Crump John Procter 50/1 9m 25.4s 1949 Russian Hero 9 10-08 Leo McMorrow George Owen Fearnie Williamson 66/1 9m 24.2s 1950 Freebooter 9 11-11 Jimmy Power Bobby Renton Lurline Brotherton 10/1 F 9m 24.2s 1951 Nickel Coin 9 10-01 John Bullock Jack O'Donoghue Jeffrey Royle 40/1 9m 48.8s 1952 Teal 10 10-12 Arthur Thompson Neville Crump Harry Lane 100/7 9m 21.5s 1953 Early Mist 8 11-02 Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien Joe Griffin 20/1 9m 22.8s 1954 Royal Tan 10 11-07 Bryan Marshall Vincent O'Brien Joe Griffin 8/1 9m 32.8s 1955 Quare Times 9 11-00 Pat Taaffe Vincent O'Brien Cecily Welman 100/9 10m 19.2s 1956 E.S.B. 10 11-03 David Dick Fred Rimell Mrs Leonard Carver 100/7 9m 21.4s 1957 Sundew 11 11-07 Fred Winter Frank Hudson Mrs Geoffrey Kohn 20/1 9m 42.4s 1958 Mr. What 8 10-06 Arthur Freeman Tom Taaffe, Sr. David J. Coughlan 18/1 9m 59.8s 1959 Oxo 8 10-13 Michael Scudamore Willie Stephenson John Bigg 8/1 9m 37.8s 1960 Merryman II 9 10-12 Gerry Scott Neville Crump Winifred Wallace 13/2 F 9m 26.2s 1961 Nicolaus Silver 9 10-01 Bobby Beasley Fred Rimell Charles Vaughan 28/1 9m 22.6s 1962 Kilmore 12 10-04 Fred Winter Ryan Price Nat Cohen 28/1 9m 50s 1963 Ayala 9 10-00 Pat Buckley Keith Piggott Pierre Raymond 66/1 9m 35.8s 1964 Team Spirit 12 10-03 Willie Robinson Fulke Walwyn John Goodman 18/1 9m 46.8s 1965 Jay Trump 8 11-05 Tommy Smith Fred Winter Mary Stephenson 100/6 9m 30.6s 1966 Anglo 8 10-00 Tim Norman Fred Winter Stuart Levy 50/1 9m 52.8s 1967 Foinavon 9 10-00 John Buckingham John Kempton Cyril Watkins 100/1 9m 49.6s 1968 Red Alligator 9 10-00 Brian Fletcher Denys Smith John Manners 100/7 9m 28.8s 1969 Highland Wedding 12 10-04 Eddie Harty, Sr. Toby Balding Thomas McCoy, Jr. (USA) & Charles Burns (CAN) 100/9 9m 30.8s 1970 Gay Trip 8 11-05 Pat Taaffe Fred Rimell Tony Chambers 15/1 9m 38s 1971 Specify 9 10-13 John Cook John Sutcliffe Fred Pontin 28/1 9m 34.2s 1972 Well To Do 9 10-01 Graham Thorner Tim Forster Tim Forster 14/1 10m 8.4s 1973 Red Rum 8 10-05 Brian Fletcher Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 9/1 JF 9m 1.9s 1974 Red Rum 9 12-00 Brian Fletcher Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 11/1 9m 20.3s 1975 L'Escargot 12 11-03 Tommy Carberry Dan Moore Raymond R. Guest (USA) 13/2 9m 31.1s 1976 Rag Trade 10 10-12 John Burke Fred Rimell Pierre Raymond 14/1 9m 20.9s 1977 Red Rum 12 11-08 Tommy Stack Ginger McCain Noel Le Mare 9/1 9m 30.3s 1978 Lucius 9 10-09 Bob Davies Gordon W. Richards Fiona Whitaker 14/1 9m 33.9s 1979 Rubstic 10 10-00 Maurice Barnes John Leadbetter John Douglas 25/1 9m 52.9s 1980 Ben Nevis 12 10-12 Mr Charlie Fenwick (USA) Tim Forster R. C. Stewart, Jr. (USA) 40/1 10m 17.4s 1981 Aldaniti 11 10-13 Bob Champion Josh Gifford Nick Embiricos 10/1 9m 47.2s 1982 Grittar 9 11-05 Mr Dick Saunders Frank Gilman Frank Gilman 7/1 F 9m 12.6s 1983 Corbiere 8 11-04 Ben de Haan Jenny Pitman Bryan Burrough 13/1 9m 47.4s 1984 Hallo Dandy 10 10-02 Neale Doughty Gordon W. Richards Richard Shaw 13/1 9m 21.4s 1985 Last Suspect 11 10-05 Hywel Davies Tim Forster Anne, duch*ess of Westminster 50/1 9m 42.7s 1986 West Tip 9 10-11 Richard Dunwoody Michael Oliver Peter Luff 15/2 9m 33.0s 1987 Maori Venture 11 10-13 Steve Knight Andrew Turnell Jim Joel 28/1 9m 19.3s 1988 Rhyme 'n' Reason 9 11-00 Brendan Powell David Elsworth Juliet Reed 10/1 9m 53.5s 1989 Little Polveir 12 10-03 Jimmy Frost Toby Balding Edward Harvey 28/1 10m 6.9s 1990 Mr Frisk 11 10-06 Mr Marcus Armytage Kim Bailey Lois Duffey (USA) 16/1 8m 47.8s (record) 1991 Seagram 11 10-06 Nigel Hawke David Barons Sir Eric Parker 12/1 9m 29.9s 1992 Party Politics 8 10-07 Carl Llewellyn Nick Gaselee Patricia Thompson 14/1 9m 6.4s 1993 Race void 1994 Miinnehoma 11 10-08 Richard Dunwoody Martin Pipe Freddie Starr 16/1 10m 18.8s 1995 Royal Athlete 12 10-06 Jason Titley Jenny Pitman G. & L. Johnson 40/1 9m 4.1s 1996 Rough Quest 10 10-07 Mick Fitzgerald Terry Casey Andrew Wates 7/1 F 9m 0.8s 1997 Lord Gyllene 9 10-00 Tony Dobbin Steve Brookshaw Stan Clarke 14/1 9m 5.9s 1998 Earth Summit 10 10-05 Carl Llewellyn Nigel Twiston-Davies Summit Partnership 7/1 F 10m 51.5s 1999 Bobbyjo 9 10-00 Paul Carberry Tommy Carberry Bobby Burke 10/1 9m 14.1s 2000 Papillon 9 10-12 Ruby Walsh Ted Walsh Mrs J. Maxwell Moran (USA) 10/1 9m 9.7s 2001 Red Marauder 11 10-11 Richard Guest Norman Mason Norman Mason 33/1 11m 0.1s 2002 Bindaree 8 10-04 Jim Culloty Nigel Twiston-Davies Raymond Mould 20/1 9m 8.6s 2003 Monty's Pass 10 10-07 Barry Geraghty Jimmy Mangan Dee Racing Syndicate 16/1 9m 21.7s 2004 Amberleigh House 12 10-10 Graham Lee Ginger McCain Halewood Int. Ltd 16/1 9m 20.3s 2005 Hedgehunter 9 11-01 Ruby Walsh Willie Mullins Trevor Hemmings 7/1 F 9m 20.8s 2006 Numbersixvalverde 10 10-08 Niall Madden Martin Brassil Bernard Carroll 11/1 9m 41.0s 2007 Silver Birch 10 10-06 Robbie Power Gordon Elliott Brian Walsh 33/1 9m 13.6s 2008 Comply or Die 9 10-09 Timmy Murphy David Pipe David Johnson 7/1 JF 9m 16.6s 2009 Mon Mome 9 11-00 Liam Treadwell Venetia Williams Vida Bingham 100/1 9m 32.9s 2010 Don't Push It 10 11-05 Tony McCoy Jonjo O'Neill J. P. McManus 10/1 JF 9m 4.6s 2011 Ballabriggs 10 11-00 Jason Maguire Donald McCain, Jr. Trevor Hemmings 14/1 9m 1.2s 2012 Neptune Collonges 11 11-06 Daryl Jacob Paul Nicholls John Hales 33/1 9m 5.1s 2013 Auroras Encore 11 10-03 Ryan Mania Sue Smith Douglas Pryde, Jim Beaumont and David P van der Hoeven 66/1 9m 12.0s 2014 Pineau De Re 11 10-06 Leighton Aspell Dr Richard Newland John Provan 25/1 9m 9.9s 2015 Many Clouds 8 11-09 Leighton Aspell Oliver Sherwood Trevor Hemmings 25/1 8m 56.8s 2016 Rule The World 9 10-07 David Mullins Mouse Morris Gigginstown House Stud 33/1 9m 29.0s 2017 One For Arthur 8 10-11 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell Deborah Thomson & Belinda McClung 14/1 9m 3.5s 2018 Tiger Roll 8 10-13 Davy Russell Gordon Elliott Gigginstown House Stud 10/1 9m 40.1s 2019 Tiger Roll 9 11-05 Davy Russell Gordon Elliott Gigginstown House Stud 4/1 F 9m 1.0s 2020 Cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic 2021 Minella Times 8 10-03 Rachael Blackmore Henry de Bromhead J. P. McManus 11/1 9m 16.42s 2022 Noble Yeats 7 10-10 Mr Sam Waley-Cohen Emmet Mullins Robert Waley-Cohen 50/1 9m 3.06s 2023 Corach Rambler 9 10-05 Derek Fox Lucinda Russell The Ramblers 8/1 F 9m 12.06s a The 1843 winner Vanguard was trained at Lord Chesterfield's private stables at Bretby Hall. References [1] Green; yellow sleeves belt and cap by Alfred E T Watson, published 1919 "Captain Little Mounted on Chandler". 1st The Queen’s Dragoon Guards. Archived from the original on 18 April 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2009. External links Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018 Aintree – Grand National Media Guide. – Winners 1886–present. – Grand National. – Grand National – Aintree. – The Grand National.

  • Condition: Usato
  • Condition: In Good Condition for its age
  • Brand: Guinness
  • Sub-Type: Guinness
  • Type: Horse Brasses
  • Era: Pre 1880
  • Drink Type: Stout
  • Material: Brass
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Ireland

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  • Popolarità - Guinness Old Gold Lustre Antique Irish Horse Solid Brass Beer Vintage Ireland UK

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Guinness Old Gold Lustre Antique Irish Horse Solid Brass Beer Vintage Ireland UK • EUR 234,81 (2024)


What was the 9000 year lease for Guinness? ›

Arthur Guinness was just 34 when he signed the iconic 9,000-year Guinness lease, on a then-disused brewery site on 31 December 1759 for an annual rent of £45. It was here on this four-acre site where Arthur would hone his craft and build the global brand that Guinness is today.

Was Guinness made by mistake? ›

It was initially a mistake - a batch of beer was accidentally burned. Instead of throwing it away Arthur Guinness sent his staff to the docks to sell the blackened stout at a discounted price. Little did he realise that he had stumbled on a recipe that would eventually sell 10 million glasses a day worldwide.

Why is there a harp on Guinness? ›

In 1862, it started using bottle labels which featured a harp to distinguish its brand. The design was based on the Brian Boru harp, which is still on display today at Trinity College. In 1876, Guinness trademarked the symbol.

How many children did Arthur Guinness have? ›

Guinness and his wife had ten children together, and upon Guinness's death in 1803, his son Arthur Guinness II inherited the brewery and all operations.

What is the alcohol content of Guinness beer? ›

This makes sense when you consider that alcohol is the main source of calories in beers. Guinness Draught has a lower alcohol content, at 4.2% alcohol by volume, compared with 5% for Budweiser and Heineken, and 4.9% for the Samuel Adams Cream Stout.

What is Guinness alcohol in Ireland? ›

Guinness Original/Extra Stout: 4.2 or 4.3% ABV in Ireland and the rest of Europe, 4.1% in Germany, 4.8% in Namibia and South Africa, 5.6% in the United States and Canada, and 6% in Australia and Japan. Guinness Foreign Extra Stout: 7.5% abv version sold in Europe, America, Africa, the Caribbean and Asia.

Is the Guinness lease still valid? ›

The 9,000 year lease signed in 1759 was for a 4 acre brewery site. Today, the brewery covers over 50 acres, which grew up over the past 200 years around the original 4 acre site. The 1759 lease is no longer valid as the Company purchased the lands outright many years ago.

How long is left on a Guinness lease? ›

The site has been the location of the Guinness brewery ever since. Guinness has expanded well beyond the original 4-acre lot, and has consequently bought out the property, rendering the 9,000-year lease from 1759 redundant.

Why is Guinness so special? ›

The makers of Guinness use a process called nitrogenation, which pairs nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide to give the beer its iconic velvety texture. This is similar to how drinking nitro cold brew is silkier than a regular cup of cold brew coffee, making it seem more filling without adding any extra calories.

Why do the Irish drink Guinness? ›

Over the last three centuries, Guinness has become a legendary part of Irish culture, celebrated as Ireland's national drink. And with over 8,000 years still left on the original St. James Gate brewery lease, there's still a lot more of 'the black stuff' to make and enjoy.

Why is there a ball in Guinness beer can? ›

It's essentially a small, white nitrogen filled ball that sits inside the can, and the second the can is opened, the widget does what it has so patiently been waiting to do. It releases the magic surge of bubbles, replicating the draught experience in a can.

Is Guinness Catholic or Protestant? ›

Arthur Guinness who brewed ale and table beer in an ancient brewery at St. James's Gate, Dublin, undertook the manufacture of Irish porter. The Guinnesses were Protestants and on excellent terms with the leisurely, moneyed English landlord rulers of Ireland.

What is the oldest beer in the world? ›

Weihenstephan Brewery (Bayerische Staatsbrauerei Weihenstephan) in Germany is the world's oldest brewery. It has been producing beer since 1040, but a taste of the storied brew is probably closer than you think.

Is Guinness British or Irish? ›

Guinness (/ˈɡɪnɪs/) is a stout that originated in the brewery of Arthur Guinness at St. James's Gate, Dublin, Ireland, in the 18th century. It is now owned by the British-based multinational alcoholic beverage maker Diageo.

Is Guinness stronger than lager? ›

Ranging from 4.1% to 4.3% ABV (alcohol by volume, if you're wondering), Guinness has a lower alcohol content than many of the other beers and ales at the bar. It also contains around 125 calories, which again is fewer than many other beers are packing in. Some premium lagers contain as much as 160 calories per pint.

Is Guinness the lowest calorie beer? ›

A pint of Guinness beer contains approximately 210 calories. Guinness falls in the middle range when compared to other beers in terms of caloric content. Being mindful of calorie intake is important for weight management. Consider low-calorie beer alternatives if you're watching your caloric intake.

What is the highest calorie beer? ›

The strongest beer in the world, Snake Venom, has 2050 calories in its bottle. Tokyo by Brewdog brewery has 546 calories in its bottle. 120 Minute IPA by Dogfish Head brewery is more like whiskey than beer and has 450 calories. Sierra Nevada brewery produced Bigfoot, a barley wine beer that has 330 calories.

Why is Guinness so expensive? ›

Guinness prices up 8% year-on-year

“Even though the increase could be attributed to heightened production expenses or shifts in market demand, the rising cost of the likes of Guinness could result in further reduced spending on dining and entertainment.

Is Guinness cold brew being discontinued? ›

Diageo has confirmed it has retired its Guinness Cold Brew Coffee Beer after fewer than 18 months. The beer – which was rolled out in April 2022 in a bid to recruit new adult drinkers to the Guinness brand – was axed some time in the summer, The Grocer understands.

Why does Guinness taste different in the US than Ireland? ›

Any time between when a beer is made and when it's poured will naturally decrease the freshness. Guinness Draught Stout is, in fact, fresher in Ireland simply because it's made there.” Exportation can exacerbate the situation, according to Ethan Fixell, a Certified Cicerone and beverage expert.

What is the longest lease in the world? ›

Longest lease There is a lease concerning a plot for a sewage tank adjoining Columb Barracks, Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, Republic of Ireland, which was signed on 3 Dec 1868 for 10million years.

How much is the Guinness family worth? ›

The Earl of Iveagh and the Guinness family

The Earl of Iveagh, heir to the Guinness brewing empire, saw his family's net worth drop from £1 billion in 2022 to £983 million in 2023, but still made it comfortably into the top 200 of the UK's wealthiest individuals.

How did the Guinness family make their money? ›

Arthur Guinness founded Guinness Breweries in 1759. The business was subsequently floated on the stock market, raising £6m at the time. In 1886 Edward Guinness used this money to set up what is thought to be the first ever "family office" - Iveagh Trustees.

Who are the heirs to the Guinness fortune? ›

Tara Browne
The Honourable Tara Browne
Known forGuinness fortune heir
SpouseNoreen MacSherry
PartnerSuki Potier
7 more rows

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